Bismuth (Bi) Elemental Symbol
Bismuth



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Bismuth(Bi) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Bismuth is a Block P, Group 15, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Bismuth's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. Bismuth Bohr ModelThe bismuth atom has a radius of 154.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-69-9, bismuth is a silvery white brittle metal. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals and, with the exception of mercury; its thermal conductivity is lower than any other metal. Bismuth has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall Effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field). Bismuth is found in bismuthinite Bi2S3 and bismite Bi2O3. Elemental BismuthIt is also produced as a byproduct of lead, copper, tin, molybdenum and tungsten extraction. Bismuth was first discovered by Early Man. The name Bismuth originates from the German word 'wissmuth' meaning white mass. Bismuth information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Bismuth Oxide(Bi2O3) PowderHigh Purity (99.9999%) Bismuth (Bi)Sputtering Target Bismuth expands on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly well suited to the making of sharp castings of objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which are extensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is also used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also used as a thermocoupling material, and has found application as a carrier for 235 U or 233 U fuel in nuclear reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forming unsoluble basic salts with the addition of water, a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics. Elemental or metallic forms of Bismuth include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapordeposition and in some optical coatings. Bismuth is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Bismuth is not toxic, however, safety data for Bismuth metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Bismuth material or compound referenced in the “Bismuth Products” tab below.


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Bismuth Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Bi Melting Point: 271.3 °C (544.45 K, 520.34 °F)
Atomic Number: 83 Boiling Point: 1560.0 °C (1833.15 K, 2840.0 °F)
Atomic Weight: 208.98038 Density: 9.78 g/cm3
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 10.05 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 15 (pnictogens), 6, p Specific Heat: 0.123 c in J/gm K
    Heat of Vaporization 151 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 11.30 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 83 Thermal Conductivity: 7.97 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 83 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 13.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 126 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 1.29 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 Electronegativity: 2.02 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 156 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 148±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 207 pm Young's Modulus: 32 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 (mildly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 12 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 31 GPa
Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral Poisson Ratio: 0.33
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.25
1st Ionization Energy: 702.96 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1610.35 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 94.2 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2466.18 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1790 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-69-9 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 300 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4514266 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 14 ppb
PubChem CID: 5359367 Abundance in universe, by weight: 10 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134033 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.09 ppb
EC Number: 231-177-4 Discovered By: Claude François Geoffroy
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1753
SMILES Identifier: [Bi]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Bi Other Names:  
InChI Key: JCXGWMGPZLAOME-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Bismuth Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Bismuth Acetate
Bismuth Acetate Solution
Bismuth Aluminate
Bismuth Aluminate Hydrate
Bismuth Arsenate
Bismuth Borate
Bismuth Bromide
Bismuth Carbide
Bismuth Carbonate
Bismuth Chloride
Bismuth Chloride, Ultra Dry
Bismuth Chloride Solution
Bismuth Cobalt Zinc Oxide
Bismuth Fluoride
Bismuth(V) Fluoride
Bismuth Germanate Bi4Ge3O12
Bismuth Germanium Oxide
Bismuth Hydride
Bismuth Hydroxide
Bismuth Iodide
Bismuth Iodide, Ultra Dry
Bismuth Lead Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2MoO6
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2Mo2O9
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2Mo3O12
Bismuth(III) Niobate
Bismuth Nitrate
Bismuth Nitrate Oxide
Bismuth Nitrate Solution
Bismuth Oxide
Bismuth Oxide - Yttria Stabilized
Bismuth(III) Oxychloride
Bismuth Phosphate
Bismuth Stannate Bi2O9Sn3
Bismuth Stannate Pentahydrate Bi2O9Sn3·5H2O
Bismuth Stannate Bi2O7Sn2
Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide
Bismuth Subcarbonate
Bismuth Subiodide
Bismuth Subnitrate
Bismuth Subnitrate Monohydrate
Bismuth Sulfate
Bismuth Sulfate Solution
Bismuth Titanate Bi4Ti3O12
Bismuth(III) Titanate Bi2Ti2O7
Bismuth Trioxide
Bismuth Tungstate
Bismuth Zirconate
Sodium Bismuth Oxide
Yttria Stabilized Bismuth Oxide (YBO)


Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Bi12GeO20
Bismuth Antimonide
Bismuth Antimony Tellurium Granule
Bismuth Antimony Tellurium Powder
Bismuth Antimony Tellurium Lump
Bismuth Ferrite
Bismuth Phosphide
Bismuth Selenide
Bismuth Selenide Single Crystal
Bismuth(III) Sulfide
Bismuth Telluride Single Crystal
Bismuth Telluride
Bi2Se3/Sb2Se3 Solid Solution
Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 Solid Solution
Strontium Titanate (Bismuth Doped)


Nanomaterials

Bismuth Cobalt Zinc Oxide Nanopowder
Bismuth Nanoprisms
Bismuth Nanorods
Bismuth Oxide Nanopowder
 
Alloys

Aluminum Bismuth Alloy
Bismuth Antimony Alloy
Bismuth Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Ingot
Bismuth Lead Tin Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Bismuth Telluride Alloy Particles
Bismuth Telluride Alloy Powder
Bismuth Tin Alloy
Bismuth Tin (Eutectic) Lump
Bismuth Tin Cadmium
Bismuth Tin Indium Lead Alloy
Bismuth Tin Silver Alloy
Indium Bismuth
Indium Bismuth Alloy
Indium Bismuth Cadmium Alloy
Indium Bismuth Tin Alloy
Lead Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Tin Bismuth Copper Silver Alloy
Tin Bismuth Zinc Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Particles
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Powder
Tin Silver Bismuth Copper Alloy
Woods Metal Stick


Organometallic Compounds

2-Naphthol, Bismuth(III) Salt
Ammonium Bismuth Citrate
BiGGY Agar
Bismuth Citrate
Bismuth Hexafluoroacetylacetonate
Bismuth Neodecanoate
Bismuth Oxalate
Bismuth Potassium Citrate
Bismuth Subgallate Basic
Bismuth Subgallate Hydrate
Bismuth Subsalicylate
Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Bismuth Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate)
Dichloritri(o-tolyl)bismuth
Dichlorodiphenyl(p-tolyl)bismuth
Dichlorotris(4-chlorophenyl)bismuth
Trimethylbismuth
Triphenyl Bismuth
Tris(1-methoxy-2-methyl-2-propoxy)bismuth
Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionato)bismuth
Tris(4-ethoxyphenyl)bismuthine


Bismuth Oxide Forms

Bismuth Oxide Nanopowder
Bismuth Oxide Pellets
Bismuth Oxide Pieces
Bismuth Oxide Powder
Bismuth Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Bismuth Oxide Shot
Bismuth Oxide Sputtering Target
Bismuth Oxide Tablets
Bismuth Trioxide Sputtering Target
Bismuth Vanadium Oxide

Recent Research & Development for Bismuth

  • Development of an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified disposable bismuth film electrode and its application for stripping analysis of heavy metals in milk. Ping J, Wang Y, Wu J, Ying Y. Food Chem. 2014.
  • Synthesis and structural studies of the simplest bismuth(iii) oxo-salicylate complex: [Bi4(μ3-O)2(HO-2-C6H4CO2)8]·2Solv (Solv = MeCN or MeNO2). Boyd TD, Kumar I, Wagner EE, Whitmire KH. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014.
  • Silver-Free Two-Component Approach in Gold Catalysis: Activation of [LAuCl] Complexes with Derivatives of Copper, Zinc, Indium, Bismuth, and other Lewis Acids. Fang W, Presset M, Guérinot A, Bour C, Bezzenine-Lafollée S, Gandon V. Chemistry. 2014
  • Characterization by combined optical and FT infrared spectra of 3d-transition metal ions doped-bismuth silicate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation. Elbatal FH, Abdelghany AM, Elbatal HA. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014
  • An atomistic insight into the corrosion of the oxide film in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic. Li D, Song C, He HY, Liu CS, Pan BC. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014
  • Optical properties of Nd(3+) doped bismuth zinc borate glasses. Shanmugavelu B, Venkatramu V, Ravi Kanth Kumar VV. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014
  • Low-Coordinate Bismuth Cations. Schwamm RJ, Day BM, Coles MP, Fitchett CM. Inorg Chem. 2014
  • Visualization of the Coalescence of Bismuth Nanoparticles. Niu KY, Liao HG, Zheng H. Microsc Microanal. 2014
  • Thermodynamic evidence for valley-dependent density of states in bulk bismuth. Küchler R, Steinke L, Daou R, Brando M, Behnia K, Steglich F. Nat Mater. 2014
  • Superconducting Double Perovskite Bismuth Oxide Prepared by a Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Reaction. Rubel MH, Miura A, Takei T, Kumada N, Mozahar Ali M, Nagao M, Watauchi S, Tanaka I, Oka K, Azuma M, Magome E, Moriyoshi C, Kuroiwa Y, Azharul Islam AK. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014
  • Bismuth-induced effects on optical, lattice vibrational, and structural properties of bulk GaAsBi alloys. Sarcan F, Dönmez O, Kara K, Erol A, Akal N E, Cetinarikan M, Makhloufi H, Arnoult A, Fontaine C. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2014
  • Controllable extracellular biosynthesis of bismuth sulfide (Bi(2) S(3) ) nanostructure by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water-oil two-phase system. Yue L, Wu Y, Liu X, Xin B, Chen S. Biotechnol Prog. 2014
  • Ho(3+) -doped strontium-aluminium-bismuth-borate glasses for green light emission. Rajesh D, Dhamodhara Naidu M, Ratnakaram YC, Balakrishna A. Luminescence. 2014
  • Recrystallized Arrays of Bismuth Nanowires with Trigonal Orientation. Limmer SJ, Yelton WG, Erickson KJ, Medlin DL, Siegal MP. Nano Lett. 2014
  • Main group bismuth(iii), gallium(iii) and diorganotin(iv) complexes derived from bis(2-acetylpyrazine)thiocarbonohydrazone: synthesis, crystal structures and biological evaluation. Zhang N, Tai Y, Li M, Ma P, Zhao J, Niu J. Dalton Trans. 2014
  • Development of an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified disposable bismuth film electrode and its application for stripping analysis of heavy metals in milk. Ping J, Wang Y, Wu J, Ying Y. Food Chem. 2014 May.
  • Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery. Suárez DJ, González Z, Blanco C, Granda M, Menéndez R, Santamaría R. ChemSusChem. 2014
  • Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of bismuth titanate with different structures via oxidant peroxo method (OPM). J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 | first author:Nogueira AE
  • Bismuth subsalicylate tablet masquerading as vanishing button battery in the stomach. Khara HS, Diehl DL, Metwally MJ, Schwender BJ. Gastrointest Endosc. 2014
  • Bismuth sulphides prepared by thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of a single source precursor: the effect of reaction parameters on morphology, microstructure and catalytic activity. Siqueira GO, de Oliveira Porto A, Viana MM, da Silva HV, de Souza YG, da Silva HW, de Lima GM, Matencio T. Phys Chem Chem Phys.



Bismuth Isotopes


Bismuth (Bi) has no stable isotopes. While Bismuth-209 has traditionally been considered a stable isotope, it is now known that it has a half-life of over 1.9×1019 years.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
209Bi 208.9803987 1.9×1019 9/2-