Bismuth (Bi) Elemental Symbol

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Bismuth(Bi) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Bismuth is a Block P, Group 15, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Bismuth's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. Bismuth Bohr ModelThe bismuth atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-69-9, bismuth is a silvery white brittle metal. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals and, with the exception of mercury; its thermal conductivity is lower than any other metal. Bismuth has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall Effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field). Bismuth is found in bismuthinite Bi2S3 and bismite Bi2O3. Elemental BismuthIt is also produced as a byproduct of lead, copper, tin, molybdenum and tungsten extraction. Bismuth was first discovered by Early Man. The name Bismuth originates from the German word 'wissmuth' meaning white mass. Bismuth information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Bismuth Oxide(Bi2O3) PowderHigh Purity (99.9999%) Bismuth (Bi)Sputtering Target Bismuth expands on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly well suited to the making of sharp castings of objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which are extensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is also used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also used as a thermocoupling material, and has found application as a carrier for 235 U or 233 U fuel in nuclear reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forming unsoluble basic salts with the addition of water, a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics. Elemental or metallic forms of Bismuth include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapordeposition and in some optical coatings. Bismuth is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Bismuth is not toxic, however, safety data for Bismuth metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Bismuth material or compound referenced in the “Bismuth Products” tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Bismuth Properties

Symbol: Bi Melting Point: 271.3 °C (544.45 K, 520.34 °F)
Atomic Number: 83 Boiling Point: 1560.0 °C (1833.15 K, 2840.0 °F)
Atomic Weight: 208.98038 Density: 9.78 g/cm3
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 10.05 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 15 (pnictogens), 6, p Specific Heat: 0.123 c in J/gm K
    Heat of Vaporization 151 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 11.30 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 83 Thermal Conductivity: 7.97 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 83 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 13.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 126 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 1.29 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 Electronegativity: 2.02 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 156 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 148±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 207 pm Young's Modulus: 32 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 (mildly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 12 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 31 GPa
Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral Poisson Ratio: 0.33
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.25
1st Ionization Energy: 702.96 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1610.35 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 94.2 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2466.18 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1790 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-69-9 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 300 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4514266 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 14 ppb
PubChem CID: 5359367 Abundance in universe, by weight: 10 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134033 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.09 ppb
EC Number: 231-177-4 Discovered By: Claude François Geoffroy
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1753
SMILES Identifier: [Bi]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Bi Other Names:  

Bismuth Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials


Bismuth Acetate
Bismuth Acetate Solution
Bismuth Aluminate
Bismuth Aluminate Hydrate
Bismuth Arsenate
Bismuth Borate
Bismuth Bromide
Bismuth Carbide
Bismuth Carbonate
Bismuth Chloride
Bismuth Chloride, Ultra Dry
Bismuth Chloride Solution
Bismuth Cobalt Zinc Oxide
Bismuth Fluoride
Bismuth(V) Fluoride
Bismuth Hydride
Bismuth Hydroxide
Bismuth Iodide
Bismuth Iodide, Ultra Dry
Bismuth Lead Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2MoO6
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2Mo2O9
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2Mo3O12
Bismuth(III) Niobate
Bismuth Nitrate
Bismuth Nitrate Oxide
Bismuth Nitrate Solution
Bismuth Oxide
Bismuth(III) Oxychloride
Bismuth Phosphate
Bismuth Stannate Bi2O9Sn3
Bismuth Stannate Pentahydrate Bi2O9Sn3·5H2O
Bismuth Stannate Bi2O7Sn2
Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide
Bismuth Subcarbonate
Bismuth Subiodide
Bismuth Subnitrate
Bismuth Subnitrate Monohydrate
Bismuth Sulfate
Bismuth Sulfate Solution
Bismuth Trioxide
Bismuth Tungstate
Bismuth Zirconate
Sodium Bismuth Oxide
Yttria Stabilized Bismuth Oxide (YBO)

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Bismuth Antimonide
Bismuth Antimony Telluride Beads
Bismuth Antimony Telluride Granule
Bismuth Antimony Telluride Powder
Bismuth Antimony Telluride Lump
Bismuth Ferrite
Bismuth Germanate Bi12GeO20
Bismuth Germanate Bi4Ge3O12
Bismuth Phosphide
Bismuth Selenide
Bismuth Selenide Single Crystal
Bismuth(III) Sulfide
Bismuth Telluride
Bismuth Telluride Single Crystal
Bismuth Titanate Bi4Ti3O12
Bismuth(III) Titanate Bi2Ti2O7
Bi2Se3/Sb2Se3 Solid Solution
Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 Solid Solution
Dibismuth Diantimonide
Erbium Bismuthide
Strontium Titanate (Bismuth Doped)


Bismuth Cobalt Zinc Oxide Nanopowder
Bismuth Nanoparticles
Bismuth Nanoprisms
Bismuth Nanorods
Bismuth Oxide Nanopowder

Aluminum Bismuth Alloy
Bismuth Antimony Alloy
Bismuth Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Ingot
Bismuth Lead Tin Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Bismuth Telluride Alloy Particles
Bismuth Telluride Alloy Powder
Bismuth Tin Alloy
Bismuth Tin (Eutectic) Lump
Bismuth Tin Cadmium
Bismuth Tin Indium Lead Alloy
Bismuth Tin Silver Alloy
Indium Bismuth
Indium Bismuth Alloy
Indium Bismuth Cadmium Alloy
Indium Bismuth Tin Alloy
Lead Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Tin Bismuth Copper Silver Alloy
Tin Bismuth Zinc Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Particles
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Powder
Tin Silver Bismuth Copper Alloy
Woods Metal Stick

Organometallic Compounds

2-Naphthol, Bismuth(III) Salt
Ammonium Bismuth Citrate
BiGGY Agar
Bismuth Citrate
Bismuth Hexafluoroacetylacetonate
Bismuth Neodecanoate
Bismuth Oxalate
Bismuth Potassium Citrate
Bismuth Subgallate Basic
Bismuth Subgallate Hydrate
Bismuth Subsalicylate
Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Bismuth Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate)
Triphenyl Bismuth

Bismuth Oxide Forms

Bismuth Oxide Nanopowder
Bismuth Oxide Pellets
Bismuth Oxide Pieces
Bismuth Oxide Powder
Bismuth Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Bismuth Oxide Shot
Bismuth Oxide Sputtering Target
Bismuth Oxide Tablets
Bismuth Trioxide Sputtering Target
Bismuth Vanadium Oxide

Recent Research & Development for Bismuth

  • Phuoc Huu Le, Chien-Neng Liao, Chih Wei Luo, Jihperng Leu, Thermoelectric properties of nanostructured bismuth–telluride thin films grown using pulsed laser deposition, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 615, 5 December 2014
  • Guangzhi Dong, Huiqing Fan, Pengrong Ren, Xiao Liu, Hole conduction and nonlinear current–voltage behavior in multiferroic lanthanum-substituted bismuth ferrite, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 615, 5 December 2014
  • Jorge Omar Gil Posada, Peter J. Hall, Post-hoc comparisons among iron electrode formulations based on bismuth, bismuth sulphide, iron sulphide, and potassium sulphide under strong alkaline conditions, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Xiaohua Zhang, Wei Ren, Feng Xin, Peng Shi, Structures and electric properties of cubic bismuth based pyrochlore thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 614, 25 November 2014
  • Masayuki Takashiri, Kazuo Imai, Masato Uyama, Harutoshi Hagino, Saburo Tanaka, Koji Miyazaki, Yoshitake Nishi, Effects of homogeneous irradiation of electron beam on crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline bismuth selenium telluride thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • Wang Wei, Ning Pingfan, Fang Jinglu, Wang Weixing, Mechanism of dielectric nonlinear characteristics in bismuth-based cubic pyrochlores, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 9, Part A, November 2014
  • Y. Saddeek, H. Shokry Hassan, G. Abd elfadeel, Fabrication and analysis of new bismuth borate glasses containing cement kiln dust, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 403, 1 November 2014
  • C. Karunakaran, S. Kalaivani, Enhanced visible light-photocatalysis by hydrothermally synthesized thallium-doped bismuth vanadate nanoparticles, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Zhenzhou Rong, Xi'an Fan, Fan Yang, Xinzhi Cai, Guangqiang Li, Microwave activated hot pressing: A new consolidation technique and its application to fine crystal bismuth telluride based compounds, Powder Technology, Volume 267, November 2014
  • Lingxia Li, Dan Xu, Shihui Yu, Helei Dong, Yuxin Jin, Haoran Zheng, Effect of substrate on the dielectric properties of bismuth magnesium niobate thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering, Vacuum, Volume 109, November 2014
  • Suyuan Zeng, Rongfeng Tang, Shengxia Duan, Lei Li, Caihua Liu, Xianli Gu, Saisai Wang, Dezhi Sun, Kinetically controlled synthesis of bismuth tungstate with different structures by a NH4F assisted hydrothermal method and surface-dependent photocatalytic properties, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 432, 15 October 2014
  • Qing Liao, Yanjie Wang, Yan Chen, Yanying Wei, Haihui Wang, Novel bifunctional tantalum and bismuth co-doped perovskite BaBi0.05Co0.8Ta0.15O3-d with high oxygen permeation, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 468, 15 October 2014
  • Dong Hoon Son, Bok Hyeon Kim, Seung Ho Lee, Seongjae Boo, Won-Taek Han, Ultra-broadband near-infrared emission in bismuth borosilicate glasses incorporated with Er3 +, Tm3 +, and Yb3 + ions, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 402, 15 October 2014
  • Xijia He, Jianbei Qiu, Yong Yang, Dacheng Zhou, Xuhui Xu, Shengxian Wei, Abnormal near-infrared luminescence property of bismuth doped calcium germanate glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 402, 15 October 2014
  • A.A. Novikov, B.S. Bokstein, A.L. Petelin, A.O. Rodin, Grain boundary wetting kinetics of bismuth melt into copper polycrystalline structure, Materials Letters, Volume 133, 15 October 2014
  • ZhangSheng Liu, HuaShen Ran, JiNan Niu, PeiZhong Feng, YaBo Zhu, One-pot synthesis of Bismuth Oxyhalide/Oxygen-rich bismuth oxyhalide Heterojunction and its photocatalytic activity, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 431, 1 October 2014
  • Xue Lin, Zongxiao Liu, Xiaoyu Guo, Chunbo Liu, Hongju Zhai, Qingwei Wang, Limin Chang, Controllable synthesis and photocatalytic activity of spherical, flower-like and nanofibrous bismuth tungstates, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 188, October 2014
  • Gowrish K. Rao, Doping ZnS and ZnSe thin films with bismuth: A comparison between sandwiching technique and nano-particle incorporation, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Zhengyang Bin, Lian Duan, Chen Li, Deqiang Zhang, Guifang Dong, Liduo Wang, Yong Qiu, Bismuth Trifluoride as a low-temperature-evaporable insulating dopant for efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes, Organic Electronics, Volume 15, Issue 10, October 2014
  • R. Wongmaneerung, J. Padchasri, R. Tipakontitikul, T.H. Loan, P. Jantaratana, R. Yimnirun, S. Ananta, Phase formation, dielectric and magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite–lead magnesium niobate multiferroic composites, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 608, 25 September 2014

Bismuth Isotopes

Bismuth (Bi) has no stable isotopes. While Bismuth-209 has traditionally been considered a stable isotope, it is now known that it has a half-life of over 1.9×1019 years.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
209Bi 208.9803987 1.9×1019 9/2-