Bromine Elemental Symbol
Bromine



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Brome Brom Bromo Bromo Bromo Brom

Bromine Element SymbolBromine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 4 element. Its electron configuration is [Ar]4s23d104p5. The bromine atom has a radius of 102 pm and its Van der Waals radius is 183 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7726-95-6, bromine has a red-brown appearance. Bromine does not occur by itself in nature, it is found as colorless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts. Bromine was discovered and first isolated by Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin in 1825-1826.

Bromine is the only liquid halogen. Bromide compounds are formed when a metallic cation binds with a charged (- 1) bromine (Br) anion to form a bromide salt of that metal. Metallic Bromides are marketed under the trade name AE Bromides™. Most metal bromide compounds are water soluble for uses in water treatment, chemical analysis and in ultra high purity for certain crystal growth applications. Bromide in an aqueous solution can be detected by adding carbon disulfide (CS2) and chlorine. Bromides were first prepared and used as sedatives, which is why a "tired" expression or saying is sometimes called a bromide.

Bromine is corrosive and toxic. Bromine information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are specified below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included. For additional information please see the Bromides Information Center.


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  • Safety Data
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  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Bromine Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Br Melting Point: -7.2 oC, 19.04 oF, 265.95 K
Atomic Number: 35 Boiling Point: 58.8 oC, 137.84 oF, 331.95 K
Atomic Weight: 79.90 Density: (Br2, liquid) 3.1028 g·cm−3
Element Category: halogen Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 17 (halogens), 4, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 29.96 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 10.571 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 35 Thermal Conductivity: 0.122 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 35 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 45 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 7.8×1010Ω·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar]4s23d104p5 Electronegativity: 2.96 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 120 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 120±3 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 75.69 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 183 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 7, 5, 4, 3, 1, -1 (strongly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: liquid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: orthorhombic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1139.9 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 2103 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3470 kJ·mol−1 Speed of Sound: (20°C) 206 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7726-95-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4514586 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 24408 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00010896 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-778-1 Discovered By: Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1825
SMILES Identifier: [Br]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Br Other Names: Brom, Brome, Bromo
InChI Key: WKBOTKDWSSQWDR-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Bromine Products


Recent Research & Development for Bromine

  • A dynamic system for delivering controlled bromine and chlorine vapor exposures to weanling swine skin. Snider TH, Perry MR, Richter WR, Plahovinsak JL, Rogers J, Reid FM, Graham JS. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2013 Jun 28. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Alcohols Effect on Critic Micelle Concentration of Polysorbate 20 and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromine Mixed Solutions. Sidim T, Acar G. J Surfactants Deterg. 2013 Jul;16(4):601-607. Epub 2013 Jan 5.
  • Experimental and computational probes of the nature of halogen bonding: complexes of bromine-containing molecules with bromide anions. Rosokha SV, Stern CL, Ritzert JT. Chemistry. 2013 Jul 1;19(27):8774-88. doi: 10.1002/chem.201300577. Epub 2013 Jun 11.
  • Bromine-bromine interactions in the packing of cis,trans,cis-1,2,3,4-tetrakis(bromomethyl)cyclobutane. Kelch A, Dix I, Hopf H, Jones PG. Acta Crystallogr C. 2013 Jun;69(Pt 6):627-9. doi: 10.1107/S0108270113010597. Epub 2013 May 2.
  • A Closer Look at the Bromine-Lithium Exchange with tert-Butyllithium in an Aryl Sulfonamide Synthesis. Waldmann C, Schober O, Haufe G, Kopka K. Org Lett. 2013 Jun 4. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Accurate determination of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in sedimentary rock reference samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and a detailed comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry literature data. Sekimoto S, Ebihara M. Anal Chem. 2013 Jul 2;85(13):6336-41. doi: 10.1021/ac400637d. Epub 2013 Jun 10.
  • Reductive bromine atom-transfer reaction. Sumino S, Fusano A, Ryu I. Org Lett. 2013 Jun 7;15(11):2826-9. doi: 10.1021/ol4011536. Epub 2013 May 22.
  • Stability and metastability of bromine clathrate polymorphs. Nguyen AH, Molinero V. J Phys Chem B. 2013 May 23;117(20):6330-8. doi: 10.1021/jp403503d. Epub 2013 May 14.
  • Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite. Hamdan R, Kemper AF, Cao C, Cheng HP. J Chem Phys. 2013 Apr 28;138(16):164702. doi: 10.1063/1.4801786.
  • In vivo speciation studies and antioxidant properties of bromine in Laminaria digitata reinforce the significance of iodine accumulation for kelps. Küpper FC, Carpenter LJ, Leblanc C, Toyama C, Uchida Y, Maskrey BH, Robinson J, Verhaeghe EF, Malin G, Luther GW 3rd, Kroneck PM, Kloareg B, Meyer-Klaucke W, Muramatsu Y, Megson IL, Potin P, Feiters MC. J Exp Bot. 2013 Jul;64(10):2653-64. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert110. Epub 2013 Apr 19.
  • A bromine analogue of picoplatin: a new substance from the group of platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Pažout R, Maixner J, Hrdá M, Loužilová T, Kacer P. Acta Crystallogr C. 2013 Apr;69(Pt 4):337-9. doi: 10.1107/S0108270113004708. Epub 2013 Mar 6.
  • Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Kim IJ, Lee KS, Hwang E, Min HS, Yim YH. Anal Chim Acta. 2013 Mar 26;769:22-9. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2013.01.037. Epub 2013 Jan 25.
  • High quantum yield molecular bromine photoelimination from mononuclear platinum(IV) complexes. Karikachery AR, Lee HB, Masjedi M, Ross A, Moody MA, Cai X, Chui M, Hoff CD, Sharp PR. Inorg Chem. 2013 Apr 1;52(7):4113-9. doi: 10.1021/ic4004998. Epub 2013 Mar 13.
  • Development of intramolecular vicinal diamination of alkenes: from palladium to bromine catalysis. Muñiz K, Martínez C. J Org Chem. 2013 Mar 15;78(6):2168-74. doi: 10.1021/jo302472w. Epub 2013 Feb 25.
  • Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide interacting with individual tumor cells. Sheridan EJ, Austin CJ, Aitken JB, Vogt S, Jolliffe KA, Harris HH, Rendina LM. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2013 Mar;20(Pt 2):226-33. doi: 10.1107/S0909049513001647. Epub 2013 Feb 7.
  • Oxyhalogen-sulfur chemistry: kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of captopril by acidified bromate and aqueous bromine. Kapungu GP, Rukweza G, Tran T, Mbiya W, Adigun R, Ndungu P, Martincigh B, Simoyi RH. J Phys Chem A. 2013 Apr 4;117(13):2704-17. doi: 10.1021/jp312672w. Epub 2013 Mar 21.
  • Halogenation of graphene with chlorine, bromine, or iodine by exfoliation in a halogen atmosphere. Poh HL, Šimek P, Sofer Z, Pumera M. Chemistry. 2013 Feb 18;19(8):2655-62. doi: 10.1002/chem.201202972. Epub 2013 Jan 7.
  • Bromine radical-mediated sequential radical rearrangement and addition reaction of alkylidenecyclopropanes. Kippo T, Hamaoka K, Ryu I. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Jan 16;135(2):632-5. doi: 10.1021/ja311821h. Epub 2012 Dec 28.
  • A new platinum-bromine cyclohexanediamine complex from the family of cancer cytostatics. Pazout R, Maixner J, Holakovská J, Dušek M, Kacer P. Acta Crystallogr C. 2012 Dec;68(Pt 12):m340-3. doi: 10.1107/S0108270112044770. Epub 2012 Nov 9.
  • The separation of waste printed circuit board by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using organic solvent. Zhu P, Chen Y, Wang LY, Zhou M, Zhou J. Waste Manag. 2013 Feb;33(2):484-8. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.10.003. Epub 2012 Nov 21.


Bromine Isotopes


Bromine (Br) has two stable isotopes: 79Br and 81Br.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
79Br 78.9183371 Stable 3/2-
81Br 80.9162906 Stable 3/2-