Bromine Elemental Symbol
Bromine



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Brome Brom Bromo Bromo Bromo Brom

Bromine Element SymbolBromine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 4 element. Its electron configuration is [Ar]4s23d104p5. The bromine atom has a radius of 102 pm and its Van der Waals radius is 183 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7726-95-6, bromine has a red-brown appearance. Bromine does not occur by itself in nature, it is found as colorless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts. Bromine was discovered and first isolated by Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin in 1825-1826.

Bromine is the only liquid halogen. Bromide compounds are formed when a metallic cation binds with a charged (- 1) bromine (Br) anion to form a bromide salt of that metal. Metallic Bromides are marketed under the trade name AE Bromides™. Most metal bromide compounds are water soluble for uses in water treatment, chemical analysis and in ultra high purity for certain crystal growth applications. Bromide in an aqueous solution can be detected by adding carbon disulfide (CS2) and chlorine. Bromides were first prepared and used as sedatives, which is why a "tired" expression or saying is sometimes called a bromide.

Bromine is corrosive and toxic. Bromine information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are specified below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included. For additional information please see the Bromides Information Center.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Bromine Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Br Melting Point: -7.2 oC, 19.04 oF, 265.95 K
Atomic Number: 35 Boiling Point: 58.8 oC, 137.84 oF, 331.95 K
Atomic Weight: 79.90 Density: (Br2, liquid) 3.1028 g·cm−3
Element Category: halogen Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 17 (halogens), 4, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 29.96 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 10.571 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 35 Thermal Conductivity: 0.122 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 35 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 45 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 7.8×1010Ω·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar]4s23d104p5 Electronegativity: 2.96 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 120 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 120±3 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 75.69 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 183 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 7, 5, 4, 3, 1, -1 (strongly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: liquid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: orthorhombic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1139.9 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 2103 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3470 kJ·mol−1 Speed of Sound: (20°C) 206 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7726-95-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4514586 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 24408 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00010896 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-778-1 Discovered By: Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1825
SMILES Identifier: [Br]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Br Other Names: Brom, Brome, Bromo
InChI Key: WKBOTKDWSSQWDR-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Bromine Products


Recent Research & Development for Bromine

  • Ping Wang, He-Liang Fan, Yan-Bo He, Hai-Fang Huang, Cai-Cai Zhu, Xi-Cun Gao, Hong Xu, Bin Wei, Small molecules with pyridine backbone modified with carbazole, fluorine and bromine for white light-emitting diode applications, Displays, Volume 34, Issue 4, October 2013
  • K.J. Syu, Y.T. Shen, S.C. Chen, W.H. Lee, Bromine-doping dependence of crystal structure and superconductivity in FeSe1-xBrx, Solid State Communications, Volume 172, October 2013
  • Qinzhi Lai, Huamin Zhang, Xianfeng Li, Liqun Zhang, Yuanhui Cheng, A novel single flow zinc–bromine battery with improved energy density, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 235, 1 August 2013
  • A. Kucukonder, B.G. Durdu, Measurement of ratios of Auger electrons emission probabilities and K–L shell vacancy transfer probability for bromine and iodine compounds, Chemical Physics Letters, Volume 579, 30 July 2013
  • John Durkee, From Chlorine to Bromine to Fluorine, Metal Finishing, Volume 111, Issue 4, July–August 2013
  • Qi Zhang, Chungui Tian, Aiping Wu, Yu Hong, Mingxia Li, Honggang Fu, In situ oxidation of Ag/ZnO by bromine water to prepare ternary Ag–AgBr/ZnO sunlight-derived photocatalyst, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 563, 25 June 2013
  • Alexis E. Dolphin, Steven J. Naftel, Andrew J. Nelson, Ronald R. Martin, Christine D. White, Bromine in teeth and bone as an indicator of marine diet, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40, Issue 4, April 2013
  • Liqun Zhang, Huamin Zhang, Qinzhi Lai, Xianfeng Li, Yuanhui Cheng, Development of carbon coated membrane for zinc/bromine flow battery with high power density, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 227, 1 April 2013
  • Lihong Dong, Shanshan Tang, Junyi Zhu, Peiying Zhan, Lifan Zhang, Fengwei Tong, Photoactivated route and new bromine source for AgBr/Ag nanocomposites with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity, Materials Letters, Volume 91, 15 January 2013
  • S. Babar, P.J. Sellin, J.F. Watts, M.A. Baker, An XPS study of bromine in methanol etching and hydrogen peroxide passivation treatments for cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors, Applied Surface Science, Volume 264, 1 January 2013
  • Osamu Tanaike, Yoshio Yamada, Masaya Kodama, Naoya Miyajima, Exfoliation of graphite by pyrolysis of bromine–graphite intercalation compounds in a vacuum glass tube, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Volume 73, Issue 12, December 2012
  • K. Lewandowska, B. Barszcz, A. Graja, A. Biadasz, B. Bursa, D. Wróbel, S.-T. Kim, T.-D. Kim, K.-S. Lee, Molecular orientation in self-assembled layers of two functionalized fullerenes—Role of bromine atom at the end of alkyl chain, Synthetic Metals, Volume 162, Issue 23, December 2012
  • , Chemtura posts 2Q 2012 sales decline, boosts bromine assets, Additives for Polymers, Volume 2012, Issue 11, November 2012
  • Marco Baron, Cristina Tubaro, Marino Basato, Andrea Biffis, Claudia Graiff, Synthesis of dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene Au(III)/Au(III) and Au(II)/Au(II) complexes via oxidative addition of chlorine or bromine to Au(I)/Au(I) species, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Volume 714, 1 September 2012
  • Luciano Canovese, Fabiano Visentin, Carlo Levi, Claudio Santo, Reactivity of cationic gold(I) carbene complexes toward oxidative addition of bromine, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 391, 30 August 2012
  • Kunhee Han, Feng Kang, Xiaofei Han, Meng Tao, Enhanced crystal grain size by bromine doping in electrodeposited Cu2O, Thin Solid Films, Volume 520, Issue 16, 1 June 2012
  • Neha Batra, Vandana, Sanjai Kumar, Mukul Sharma, S.K. Srivastava, Pooja Sharma, P.K. Singh, A comparative study of silicon surface passivation using ethanolic iodine and bromine solutions, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 100, May 2012
  • S. Mirershadi, A. Reyhani, S.Z. Mortazavi, B. Safibonab, M. Khabazian Esfahani, The effects of bromine treatment on the hydrogen storage properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 36, Issue 24, December 2011
  • Christian Kuhnt, Michael Karnahl, Sven Rau, Michael Schmitt, Benjamin Dietzek, Jürgen Popp, The impact of bromine substitution on the photophysical properties of a homodinuclear Ru–tpphz–Ru complex, Chemical Physics Letters, Volume 516, Issues 1–3, 7 November 2011
  • Andrey M. Efimov, Alexander I. Ignatiev, Nikolay V. Nikonorov, Evgenii S. Postnikov, Quantitative UV–VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 357, Issues 19–20, October 2011


Bromine Isotopes


Bromine (Br) has two stable isotopes: 79Br and 81Br.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
79Br 78.9183371 Stable 3/2-
81Br 80.9162906 Stable 3/2-