Bronze Electrodes

High Purity Cu Sn Electrodes


Product Product Code Order or Specifications
(2N) 99% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-02-EL Contact American Elements
(3N) 99.9% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-03-EL Contact American Elements
(4N) 99.99% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-04-EL Contact American Elements
(5N) 99.999% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-05-EL Contact American Elements

American Elements specializes in producing high purity uniform shaped Bronze Electrodes with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in semiconductor, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Metallic-Organic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). American Elements produces high purity Bronze Electrodes which can be used in chemical and physics experiments related to mass and heat conductivity or for demonstration purposes. Materials are produced using crystallization, solid state and other ultra high purification processes such as sublimation. American Elements specializes in producing custom compositions for commercial and research applications and for new proprietary technologies. American Elements casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced materials into rod, bar or plate form, as well as other machined shapes and through other processes such as nanoparticles (See also application discussion at Nanotechnology Information and at Quantum Dots) and in the form of solutions and organometallics. See safety data and research below and pricing/lead time above.

Copper Bohr ModelCopper (Cu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCopper (atomic symbol: Cu, atomic number: 29) is a Block D, Group 11, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 63.546. The number of electrons in each of copper's shells is 2, 8, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s1. The copper atom has a radius of 128 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 186 pm. Copper was first discovered by Early Man prior to 9000 BC.In its elemental form, copper has a red-orange metallic luster appearance. Elemental Copper Of all pure metals, only silver has a higher electrical conductivity.The origin of the word copper comes from the Latin word 'cuprium' which translates as "metal of Cyprus." Cyprus, a Mediterranean island, was known as an ancient source of mined copper. For more information on copper, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of copper products, visit the Copper Information Center.

Tin Bohr ModelTin (Sn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTin (atomic symbol: Sn, atomic number: 50) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 118.710. The number of electrons in each of tin's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The tin atom has a radius of 140.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 217 pm.In its elemental form, tin has a silvery-gray metallic appearance. It is malleable, ductile and highly crystalline. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) MetalTin has nine stable isotopes and 18 unstable isotopes. Under 3.72 degrees Kelvin, Tin becomes a superconductor. Applications for tin include soldering, plating, and such alloys as pewter. The first uses of tin can be dated to the Bronze Age around 3000 BC in which tin and copper were combined to make the alloy bronze. The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. For more information on tin, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of tin products, visit the Tin Information Center.


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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.


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Production Catalog Available in 36 Countries & Languages


Recent Research & Development for Copper

  • Ke Liu, Yang Song, Shaowei Chen, Electrocatalytic activities of alkyne-functionalized copper nanoparticles in oxygen reduction in alkaline media, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • E. Linga Reddy, J. Karuppiah, Hyun Chan Lee, Dong Hyun Kim, Steam reforming of methanol over copper loaded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared through electrodeposition, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Lijie Zhang, Ming Meng, Xiaojing Wang, Shuang Zhou, Lijuan Yang, Tianyong Zhang, Lirong Zheng, Jing Zhang, Tiandou Hu, A series of copper-free ternary oxide catalysts ZnAlCex used for hydrogen production via dimethyl ether steam reforming, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Laura Sanz, David Lloyd, Eva Magdalena, Jesús Palma, Kyösti Kontturi, Description and performance of a novel aqueous all-copper redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Kaiyou Zhang, Hong Chen, Xue Wang, Donglin Guo, Chenguo Hu, Shuxia Wang, Junliang Sun, Qiang Leng, Synthesis and structure determination of potassium copper selenide nanowires and solid-state supercapacitor application, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Tamer Crosby, Giacomo Po, Nasr M. Ghoniem, Modeling plastic deformation of post-irradiated copper micro-pillars, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Gang He, Kunyuan Xu, Shibin Guo, Xueqiang Qian, Zengchao Yang, Guanghua Liu, Jiangtao Li, Preparation of tungsten fiber reinforced-tungsten/copper composite for plasma facing component, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • M.M. El-Nahass, F.S.H. Abu-Samaha, Shokry Menshawy, Eman Elesh, Effect of annealing on structural and optical properties of copper tetraphenylporphyrin (CuTPP) thin films, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 64, December 2014
  • Krzysztof Naplocha, Kazimierz Granat, Jacek Kaczmar, Reactive melt infiltration of copper in Al–Cr preforms produced through combustion synthesis, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 613, 15 November 2014
  • Pouyan Paknahad, Masoud Askari, Milad Ghorbanzadeh, Application of sol–gel technique to synthesis of copper–cobalt spinel on the ferritic stainless steel used for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • Xin Qing, Jingjing Shi, Chengyu Ma, Mengyang Fan, Zhengyu Bai, Zhongwei Chen, Jinli Qiao, Jiujun Zhang, Simultaneous formation of nitrogen and sulfur-doped transition metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction through pyrolyzing carbon-supported copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • Ferhat Aslan, Ahmet Tumbul, Non-vacuum processed Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films: Influence of copper precursor on structural, optical and morphological properties, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • Y.S.M. Alajerami, S. Hashim, S.K. Ghoshal, D.A. Bradley, M. Mhareb, M.A. Saleh, Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 155, November 2014
  • Sung-Hyeon Park, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim, Temperature changes of copper nanoparticle ink during flash light sintering, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214, Issue 11, November 2014
  • J.J. Chen, A.L. Ahmad, B.S. Ooi, Thermo-responsive properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogel and its effect on copper ion removal and fouling of polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 469, 1 November 2014
  • Zuwei Yin, Fuyi Chen, A facile electrochemical fabrication of hierarchically structured nickel–copper composite electrodes on nickel foam for hydrogen evolution reaction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • W.H. Zhou, H. Guo, Z.J. Xie, C.J. Shang, R.D.K. Misra, Copper precipitation and its impact on mechanical properties in a low carbon microalloyed steel processed by a three-step heat treatment, Materials & Design, Volume 63, November 2014
  • Xiaofan Du, Tong Gao, Yuying Wu, Xiangfa Liu, Effects of copper addition on the in-situ synthesis of SiC particles in Al–Si–C–Cu system, Materials & Design, Volume 63, November 2014
  • C. Dang, Q.L. Che, B.L. Gao, L. Li, B.B. Wang, Growth, photoluminescence and thermal conductance of graphene-like nanoflakes grown on copper foils in methane environment, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • M. Somasundaram, R. Saravanathamizhan, C. Ahmed Basha, V. Nandakumar, S. Nathira Begum, T. Kannadasan, Recovery of copper from scrap printed circuit board: modelling and optimization using response surface methodology, Powder Technology, Volume 266, November 2014

Recent Research & Development for Tin

  • Nguyen Dang Nam, Mahesh Vaka, Nguyen Tran Hung, Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN-coated 316L stainless steel in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • M.A. Deyab, Hydrogen generation by tin corrosion in lactic acid solution promoted by sodium perchlorate, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Feng Gu, Wenjuan Huang, Shufen Wang, Xing Cheng, Yanjie Hu, Chunzhong Li, Improved photoelectric conversion efficiency from titanium oxide-coupled tin oxide nanoparticles formed in flame, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • C. Tholander, B. Alling, F. Tasnádi, J.E. Greene, L. Hultman, Effect of Al substitution on Ti, Al, and N adatom dynamics on TiN(001), (011), and (111) surfaces, Surface Science, Volume 630, December 2014
  • A. Elrefaey, J. Janczak-Rusch, M.M. Koebel, Direct glass-to-metal joining by simultaneous anodic bonding and soldering with activated liquid tin solder, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214, Issue 11, November 2014
  • Xiang Lei Shi, Jian Tao Wang, Jian Nong Wang, Roughness improvement of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films by using different alcohol solvents, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • K. Vijayarangamuthu, Shyama Rath, Nanoparticle size, oxidation state, and sensing response of tin oxide nanopowders using Raman spectroscopy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • Caitian Gao, Xiaodong Li, Xupeng Zhu, Lulu Chen, Zemin Zhang, Youqing Wang, Zhenxing Zhang, Huigao Duan, Erqing Xie, Branched hierarchical photoanode of titanium dioxide nanoneedles on tin dioxide nanofiber network for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 264, 15 October 2014
  • Shu Wei, Dong-Dong Han, Li Guo, Yinyan He, Hong Ding, Yong-Lai Zhang, Feng-Shou Xiao, In situ immobilization of tin dioxide nanoparticles by nanoporous polymers scaffold toward monolithic humidity sensing devices, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 431, 1 October 2014
  • G. Kilibarda, S. Schlabach, V. Winkler, M. Bruns, T. Hanemann, D.V. Szabó, Electrochemical performance of tin-based nano-composite electrodes using a vinylene carbonate-containing electrolyte for Li-ion cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Kehua Dai, Hui Zhao, Zhihui Wang, Xiangyun Song, Vince Battaglia, Gao Liu, Toward high specific capacity and high cycling stability of pure tin nanoparticles with conductive polymer binder for sodium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Atasheh Soleimani-Gorgani, Ehsan Bakhshandeh, Farhood Najafi, Effect of dispersant agents on morphology and optical–electrical properties of nano indium tin oxide ink-jet ink, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2014
  • Bhupendra Singh, Ji-Hye Kim, Jun-Young Park, Sun-Ju Song, Ionic conductivity of Mn2+ doped dense tin pyrophosphate electrolytes synthesized by a new co-precipitation method, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2014
  • Shihyun Ahn, Anh Huy Tuan Le, Sunbo Kim, Cheolmin Park, Chonghoon Shin, Youn-Jung Lee, Jaehyeong Lee, Chaehwan Jeong, Vinh Ai Dao, Junsin Yi, The effects of orientation changes in indium tin oxide films on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell with shallow-emitter, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014
  • Faheem K. Butt, Chuanbao Cao, Tariq Mahmood, Faryal Idrees, Muhammad Tahir, Waheed S. Khan, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, M. Tanveer, Sajad Hussain, Imran Aslam, Dapeng Yu, Metal-catalyzed synthesis of ultralong tin dioxide nanobelts: Electrical and optical properties with oxygen vacancy-related orange emission, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Zhou Xu, Peng Chen, Zhenlong Wu, Feng Xu, Guofeng Yang, Bin Liu, Chongbin Tan, Lin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Youdou Zheng, Influence of thermal annealing on electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin films, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • L.P. Chikhale, J.Y. Patil, A.V. Rajgure, R.C. Pawar, I.S. Mulla, S.S. Suryavanshi, Synthesis, characterization and LPG response of Pd loaded Fe doped tin oxide thick films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 608, 25 September 2014
  • Monika Madej, The effect of TiN and CrN interlayers on the tribological behavior of DLC coatings, Wear, Volume 317, Issues 1–2, 15 September 2014
  • Bhim Singh Rathore, Deepak Pathania, Styrene–tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of organic dye in presence of visible light, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • Brian Cardineau, Ryan Del Re, Miles Marnell, Hashim Al-Mashat, Michaela Vockenhuber, Yasin Ekinci, Chandra Sarma, Daniel A. Freedman, Robert L. Brainard, Photolithographic properties of tin-oxo clusters using extreme ultraviolet light (13.5 nm), Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 127, 5 September 2014