Bronze Electrodes

High Purity Cu Sn Electrodes


Product Product Code Order or Specifications
(2N) 99% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-02-EL Contact American Elements
(3N) 99.9% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-03-EL Contact American Elements
(4N) 99.99% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-04-EL Contact American Elements
(5N) 99.999% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-05-EL Contact American Elements

American Elements specializes in producing high purity uniform shaped Bronze Electrodes with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in semiconductor, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Metallic-Organic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). American Elements produces high purity Bronze Electrodes which can be used in chemical and physics experiments related to mass and heat conductivity or for demonstration purposes. Materials are produced using crystallization, solid state and other ultra high purification processes such as sublimation. American Elements specializes in producing custom compositions for commercial and research applications and for new proprietary technologies. American Elements casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced materials into rod, bar or plate form, as well as other machined shapes and through other processes such as nanoparticles (See also application discussion at Nanotechnology Information and at Quantum Dots) and in the form of solutions and organometallics. See safety data and research below and pricing/lead time above.

Copper Bohr ModelCopper (Cu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCopper (atomic symbol: Cu, atomic number: 29) is a Block D, Group 11, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 63.546. The number of electrons in each of copper's shells is 2, 8, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s1. The copper atom has a radius of 128 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 186 pm. Copper was first discovered by Early Man prior to 9000 BC.In its elemental form, copper has a red-orange metallic luster appearance. Elemental Copper Of all pure metals, only silver has a higher electrical conductivity.The origin of the word copper comes from the Latin word 'cuprium' which translates as "metal of Cyprus." Cyprus, a Mediterranean island, was known as an ancient source of mined copper. For more information on copper, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of copper products, visit the Copper Information Center.

Tin Bohr ModelTin (Sn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTin (atomic symbol: Sn, atomic number: 50) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 118.710. The number of electrons in each of tin's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The tin atom has a radius of 140.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 217 pm.In its elemental form, tin has a silvery-gray metallic appearance. It is malleable, ductile and highly crystalline. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) MetalTin has nine stable isotopes and 18 unstable isotopes. Under 3.72 degrees Kelvin, Tin becomes a superconductor. Applications for tin include soldering, plating, and such alloys as pewter. The first uses of tin can be dated to the Bronze Age around 3000 BC in which tin and copper were combined to make the alloy bronze. The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. For more information on tin, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of tin products, visit the Tin Information Center.


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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.


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Recent Research & Development for Copper

  • Wen-Tong Chen, Qiu-Yan Luo, Ya-Ping Xu, Yan-Kang Dai, Shan-Lin Huang, Pei-Yu Guo, Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and properties of a thermally stable dysprosium porphyrin with a three-dimensional porous open framework, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 49, November 2014
  • Yingjie Zhang, Mohan Bhadbhade, Nicholas Scales, Inna Karatchevtseva, Jason R. Price, Kim Lu, Gregory R. Lumpkin, Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—From simple dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 219, November 2014
  • Yan Sui, Xiao-Niu Fang, Rong-Hua Hu, Jia Li, Dong-Sheng Liu, A new type of multifunctional single ionic dysprosium complex based on chiral salen-type Schiff base ligand, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 423, Part A, 1 November 2014
  • Yan Wang, Bin Cui, Lulu Zhang, Zhenyu Hu, Yaoyu Wang, Phase composition, microstructure, and dielectric properties of dysprosium-doped Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3-based Y5V ceramics with high permittivity, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • M.F. Al-Kuhaili, S.M.A. Durrani, Structural and optical properties of dysprosium oxide thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 591, 5 April 2014
  • Huijie Zhang, Ruiqing Fan, Wei Chen, Xubin Zheng, Kai Li, Ping Wang, Yulin Yang, Two new dysprosium–organic frameworks contaning rigid dicarboxylate ligands: Synthesis and effect of solvents on the luminescent properties, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 143, November 2013
  • Stuart K. Langley, Boujemaa Moubaraki, Keith S. Murray, Trinuclear, octanuclear and decanuclear dysprosium(III) complexes: Synthesis, structural and magnetic studies, Polyhedron, Volume 64, 12 November 2013
  • Mengsi Yang, Jianhua Jin, Guiqing Xu, Fengling Cui, Hongxia Luo, A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs, Chemical Physics, Volume 428, 15 January 2014
  • Zhi-Gang Wang, Jing Lu, Chun-Yan Gao, Chao Wang, Jin-Lei Tian, Wen Gu, Xin Liu, Shi-Ping Yan, Single-ion magnet behavior of a new mononuclear dysprosium complex, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 27, January 2013
  • Brian J. Jaques, Daniel D. Osterberg, Gordon A. Alanko, Sumit Tamrakar, Cole R. Smith, Michael F. Hurley, Darryl P. Butt, In situ characterization of the nitridation of dysprosium during mechanochemical processing, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 201

Recent Research & Development for Tin

  • K. Jeyadheepan, M. Thamilselvan, Kyunghae Kim, Junsin Yi, C. Sanjeeviraja, Optoelectronic properties of R-F magnetron sputtered Cadmium Tin Oxide (Cd2SnO4) thin films for CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell applications, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 620, 25 January 2015
  • Abdullah M. Al-Hamdi, Mika Sillanpää, Joydeep Dutta, Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by iodine doped tin oxide nanoparticles under UV and sunlight irradiation, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • A.D. Pogrebnjak, D. Eyidi, G. Abadias, O.V. Bondar, V.M. Beresnev, O.V. Sobol, Structure and properties of arc evaporated nanoscale TiN/MoN multilayered systems, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Volume 48, January 2015
  • M. Popovic, M. Novakovic, M. Mitric, K. Zhang, N. Bibic, Structural, optical and electrical properties of argon implanted TiN thin films, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Volume 48, January 2015
  • Shuang Ma Andersen, Casper Frydendal Nørgaard, Mikkel Juul Larsen, Eivind Skou, Tin Dioxide as an Effective Antioxidant for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Dongsheng Guan, Jianyang Li, Xianfeng Gao, Chris Yuan, A comparative study of enhanced electrochemical stability of tin–nickel alloy anode for high-performance lithium ion battery, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 617, 25 December 2014
  • Xiaowei Liu, Donghua Teng, Ting Li, Yunhua Yu, Xiaohong Shao, Xiaoping Yang, Phosphorus-doped tin oxides/carbon nanofibers webs as lithium-ion battery anodes with enhanced reversible capacity, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Lulu Chen, Xiaodong Li, Youqing Wang, Caitian Gao, Hang Zhang, Bo Zhao, Feng Teng, Jinyuan Zhou, Zhenxing Zhang, Xiaojun Pan, Erqing Xie, Low-temperature synthesis of tin dioxide hollow nanospheres and their potential applications in dye-sensitized solar cells and photoelectrochemical type self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Qinian Wang, Heng Dong, Hongbing Yu, Development of rolling tin gas diffusion electrode for carbon dioxide electrochemical reduction to produce formate in aqueous electrolyte, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 271, 20 December 2014
  • C.S. Ferreira, R.R. Passos, L.A. Pocrifka, Synthesis and properties of ternary mixture of nickel/cobalt/tin oxides for supercapacitors, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 271, 20 December 2014