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Bronze Electrodes

High Purity Cu Sn Electrodes


Product Product Code Request Quote
(2N) 99% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-02-EL Request Quote
(3N) 99.9% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-03-EL Request Quote
(4N) 99.99% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-04-EL Request Quote
(5N) 99.999% Bronze Electrode BRZ-M-05-EL Request Quote

American Elements specializes in producing high purity uniform shaped Bronze Electrodes with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in semiconductor, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Metallic-Organic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). American Elements produces high purity Bronze Electrodes which can be used in chemical and physics experiments related to mass and heat conductivity or for demonstration purposes. Materials are produced using crystallization, solid state and other ultra high purification processes such as sublimation. American Elements specializes in producing custom compositions for commercial and research applications and for new proprietary technologies. American Elements casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced materials into rod, bar, or plate form, as well as other machined shapes and through other processes such as nanoparticles () and in the form of solutions and organometallics. See safety data and research below and pricing/lead time above.

Copper Bohr ModelCopper (Cu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCopper (atomic symbol: Cu, atomic number: 29) is a Block D, Group 11, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 63.546. The number of electrons in each of copper's shells is 2, 8, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s1. The copper atom has a radius of 128 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 186 pm. Copper was first discovered by Early Man prior to 9000 BC. In its elemental form, copper has a red-orange metallic luster appearance. Elemental Copper Of all pure metals, only silver has a higher electrical conductivity.The origin of the word copper comes from the Latin word 'cuprium' which translates as "metal of Cyprus." Cyprus, a Mediterranean island, was known as an ancient source of mined copper. For more information on copper, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of copper products, visit the Copper element page.

Tin Bohr ModelTin (Sn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTin (atomic symbol: Sn, atomic number: 50) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 118.710. The number of electrons in each of tin's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The tin atom has a radius of 140.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 217 pm.In its elemental form, tin has a silvery-gray metallic appearance. It is malleable, ductile and highly crystalline. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) MetalTin has nine stable isotopes and 18 unstable isotopes. Under 3.72 degrees Kelvin, Tin becomes a superconductor. Applications for tin include soldering, plating, and such alloys as pewter. The first uses of tin can be dated to the Bronze Age around 3000 BC in which tin and copper were combined to make the alloy bronze. The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. For more information on tin, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of tin products, visit the Tin element page.


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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.


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Recent Research & Development for Copper

  • Disulfiram (DSF) acts as a copper ionophore to induce copper-dependent oxidative stress and mediate anti-tumor efficacy in inflammatory breast cancer. Allensworth JL, Evans MK, Bertucci F, Aldrich AJ, Festa RA, Finetti P, Ueno NT, Safi R, McDonnell DP, Thiele DJ, Van Laere S, Devi GR. Mol Oncol. 2015 Feb 21.
  • Aerosol assisted CVD grown WO3 nanoneedles decorated with copper oxide nanoparticles for the selective and humidity resilient detection of H2S. Annanouch FE, Haddi Z, Vallejos S, Umek P, Guttmann P, Bittencourt C, Llobet E. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Mar 16.
  • Enhanced Photoelectrocatalytic Decomposition of Copper Cyanide Complexes and Simultaneous Recovery of Copper with Bi2MoO6 Electrode under Visible Light by EDTA/K4P2O7. Zhao X, Zhang J, Qiao M, Liu H, Qu J. Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Mar 13.
  • Copper-mediated ortho C-H sulfonylation of benzoic acid derivatives with sodium sulfinates. Liu J, Yu L, Zhuang S, Gui Q, Chen X, Wang W, Tan Z. Chem Commun (Camb). 2015 Mar 13.
  • Comparative toxicity of copper nanoparticles across three Lemnaceae species. Song L, Vijver MG, Peijnenburg WJ. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 9
  • Association of structural modifications with bioactivity in three new copper(II) complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and amino acids. Li A, Liu YH, Yuan LZ, Ma ZY, Zhao CL, Xie CZ, Bao WG, Xu JY. J Inorg Biochem. 2015 Mar 2
  • Sequential recovery of copper and nickel from wastewater without net energy input. Cai WF, Fang XW, Xu MX, Liu XH, Wang YH. Water Sci Technol. 2015 Mar
  • Copper-Catalyzed Selective Arylations of Benzoxazoles with Aryl Iodides. Kim D, Yoo K, Kim SE, Cho HJ, Lee J, Kim Y, Kim M. J Org Chem. 2015 Mar 13.
  • Copper(i)-catalyzed heteroannulation of [60]fullerene with ketoxime acetates: preparation of novel 1-fulleropyrrolines. Jiang SP, Su YT, Liu KQ, Wu QH, Wang GW. Chem Commun (Camb). 2015 Mar 13.
  • Suppressing Bacterial Interaction with Copper Surfaces through Graphene and Hexagonal-Boron Nitride Coatings. Parra C, Montero-Silva F, Henriquez R, Flores M, Garin C, Ramirez C, Moreno M, Correa J, Seeger M, Häberle P. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Mar 16.
  • A dual radiolabelling approach for tracking metal complexes: investigating the speciation of copper bis(thiosemicarbazonates) in vitro and in vivo. Hueting R, Kersemans V, Tredwell M, Cornelissen B, Christlieb M, Gee AD, Passchier J, Smart SC, Gouverneur V, Muschel RJ, Dilworth JR. Metallomics. 2015 Mar 13.
  • Effects of copper and lead exposure on the ecophysiology of the brown seaweed Sargassum cymosum. Costa GB, de Felix MR, Simioni C, Ramlov F, Oliveira ER, Pereira DT, Maraschin M, Chow F, Horta PA, Lalau CM, da Costa CH, Matias WG, Bouzon ZL, Schmidt ÉC. Protoplasma. 2015 Mar 15.
  • Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field. Defo MA, Bernatchez L, Campbell PG, Couture P. Aquat Toxicol. 2015 Feb 21
  • The size, but not the fluctuating asymmetry of the leaf, of silver birch changes under the gradient influence of emissions of the Karabash Copper Smelter Plant. Koroteeva EV, Veselkin DV, Kuyantseva NB, Chashchina OE. Dokl Biol Sci. 2015 Jan
  • Adsorption of copper on tri-amino-functionalized mesoporous delta manganese dioxide from aqueous solution. Zhai Y, Xu X, Wang H, Shi X, Lei D. Water Sci Technol. 2015 Mar
  • ZnII (atsm) is protective in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice via a copper delivery mechanism. McAllum EJ, Roberts BR, Hickey JL, Dang TN, Grubman A, Donnelly PS, Liddell JR, White AR, Crouch PJ. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Mar 10.
  • A highly sensitive fluorescence probe for metallothioneins based on tiron-copper complex. Xiao X, Xue J, Liao L, Huang M, Zhou B, He B. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2015 Feb 18
  • Comparison of the capacity of two biotic ligand models to predict chronic copper toxicity to two Daphnia magna clones and formulation of a generalized bioavailability model. Van Regenmortel T, Janssen CR, De Schamphelaere KA. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015 Mar 13.
  • Redox-activity and self-organization of iron-porphyrin monolayers at a copper/electrolyte interface. Phan TH, Wandelt K. J Chem Phys. 2015 Mar 14
  • Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds in epoxides leading to aryl nitriles and aryl aldehydes. Gu L, Jin C. Chem Commun (Camb). 2015 Mar 16.

Recent Research & Development for Tin

  • Formation of an Imino-Stabilized Cyclic Tin(II) Cation from an Amino(imino)stannylene. Ochiai T, Franz D, Irran E, Inoue S. Chemistry. 2015 Mar 12.
  • Synthesis and thermal behavior of tin-based alloy (Sn-Ag-Cu) nanoparticles. Roshanghias A, Yakymovych A, Bernardi J, Ipser H. Nanoscale. 2015 Mar 11.
  • Efficient Conversion of CO2 to CO Using Tin and other Inexpensive and Easily Prepared Post-Transition Metal Catalysts. Medina-Ramos J, Pupillo RC, Keane TP, DiMeglio JL, Rosenthal J. J Am Chem Soc. 2015 Feb 19.
  • Reductive Electropolymerization of a Vinyl-containing Poly-pyridyl Complex on Glassy Carbon and Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Electrodes. Harrison DP, Carpenter LS, Hyde JT. J Vis Exp. 2015 Jan 30
  • Tissue distribution of indium after repeated intratracheal instillations of indium-tin oxide into the lungs of hamsters. Tanaka A, Hirata M, Matsumura N, Kiyohara Y. J Occup Health. 2015 Jan 10.
  • A Tin-Free Route to trans-Diels-Alder Motifs by Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis. Lee JH, Mho SI. J Org Chem. 2015 Mar 12.
  • Investigation of Fluoroethylene Carbonate Effects on Tin-based Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes. Yang Z, Gewirth AA, Trahey L. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Mar 5.
  • Sensing sulfur-containing gases using titanium and tin decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbons from first-principles. Abdulkader Tawfik S, Cui XY, Carter DJ, Ringer SP, Stampfl C. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015 Feb 25
  • A rational computational study of surface defect-mediated stabilization of low-dimensional Pt nanostructures on TiN(100). Tak YJ, Jang W, Richter NA, Soon A. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015 Feb 23.
  • Transition-Metal-Free Coupling Reaction of Vinylcyclopropanes with Aldehydes Catalyzed by Tin Hydride. Ieki R, Kani Y, Tsunoi S, Shibata I. Chemistry. 2015 Mar 5.
  • Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT Angiography of the Supra-Aortic Arteries with Tin Filter: Impact of Tube Voltage Selection. Korn A, Bender B, Schabel C, Bongers M, Ernemann U, Claussen C, Thomas C. Acad Radiol. 2015 Mar 12.
  • Synthesis of cyclic polyesters: effects of alkoxy side chains in salicylaldiminato tin(ii) complexes. Wongmahasirikun P, Prom-On P, Sangtrirutnugul P, Kongsaeree P, Phomphrai K. Dalton Trans. 2015 Mar 10.
  • A novel and green process for the production of tin oxide quantum dots and its application as a photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes from aqueous phase. Bhattacharjee A, Ahmaruzzaman M. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2015 Feb 8
  • Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals. Qu Q, Liu G, Sun R, Kang Y. Environ Geochem Health. 2015 Feb 17.
  • η3 -Allyl Coordination at Tin(II)-Reactivity towards Alkynes and Benzonitrile. Krebs KM, Wiederkehr J, Schneider J, Schubert H, Eichele K, Wesemann L. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015 Mar 12.
  • Reply to tin and wiwanitkit. Burkle FM. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2015 Feb
  • Chemistry of stannylene-based lewis pairs: dynamic tin coordination switching between donor and acceptor character. Krebs KM, Freitag S, Schubert H, Gerke B, Pöttgen R, Wesemann L. Chemistry. 2015 Mar 16
  • Synthesis of silicon-germanium axial nanowire heterostructures in a solvent vapor growth system using indium and tin catalysts. Mullane E, Geaney H, Ryan KM. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015 Feb 25
  • Comparison of the enhanced gas sensing properties of tin dioxide samples doped with different catalytic transition elements. Yang F, Guo Z. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2015 Feb 23
  • Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response. Shi X, Xu L, Munar ML, Ishikawa K. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015 Apr