Dysprosium Elemental Symbol
Dysprosium



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Dysprosium Dysprosium Disprosio Disprósio Disprosio Dysprosium

Dysprosium Element SymbolDysprosium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Dysprosium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of dysprosium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f10 6s2. The dysprosium atom has an atomic radius of 178 pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 229 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7429-91-6, dysprosium has a silvery-white appearance. Dysprosium is found in various minerals including bastnäsite, blomstrandine, euxenite, fergusonite, gadolinite, monazite, polycrase and xenotime. It is not found in nature as a free element. Elemental Dysprosium Picture Monazite sand is the primary commercial source of dysprosium. Dysprosium was first discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. The element name originates from the Greek word 'dysprositos' meaning hard to get at.

Dysprosium is most commonly used in neodymium-iron-boron high strength permanent magnets. While it has one of the highest magnetic moments of any of the rare earths (10.6µB), this has not resulted in an ability to perform on its own as a practical alternative to neodymium compositions. It is however now an essential additive in NdFeB production. Dysprosium is also used in special ceramic compositions based on BaTiO formulations. Recent research has examined the use of dysprosium in dysprosium-iron-garnet (DyIG) and High Purity (99.995%) Dysprosium (Dy) Sputtering Target silicon implanted with dysprosium and holmium to form donor centers. Dysprosium is added to various advanced optical formulations due to the fact that it emits in the 470-500 and 570-600 nm wavelengths. Dysprosium metal is used in rare earth magnet alloys and magnesium alloys. Due to dysprosium's high susceptibility to magnetization, it is also used in a variety of data storage applications, such as in compact discs. High Purity (99.999%) Dysprosium Oxide (Dy2O3) Powder Dysprosium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Dysprosium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Dysprosium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Dysprosium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Dysprosium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Dysprosium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Dy Melting Point: 1412 oC, 2573.6 oF, 1685.15 K
Atomic Number: 66 Boiling Point: 2567 oC, 4652.6 oF, 2840.15 K
Atomic Weight: 162.5 Density: 8.550 gm/cc
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.37 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0414 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 67 K-cal/gm atom at 2562 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.10 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 66 Thermal Conductivity: 0.107 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 66 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 9.9 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 96 Electrical Resistivity: 57.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f106s2 Electronegativity: 1.22 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 178 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 192±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.7 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 229 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 61.4 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 24.7 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 40.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.247
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 573.02 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 540 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1125.99 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 500 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2199.88 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2710 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7429-91-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22355 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23912 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010982 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-073-9 Discovered By: Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1886
SMILES Identifier: [Dy]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Dy Other Names: Disprosio
InChI Key: KBQHZAAAGSGFKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Dysprosium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Dysprosium

  • Brian J. Jaques, Daniel D. Osterberg, Gordon A. Alanko, Sumit Tamrakar, Cole R. Smith, Michael F. Hurley, Darryl P. Butt, In situ characterization of the nitridation of dysprosium during mechanochemical processing, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Z. Khadraoui, C. Bouzidi, K. Horchani-Naifer, M. Ferid, Crystal structure, energy band and optical properties of dysprosium monophosphate DyPO4, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 617, 25 December 2014
  • Wen-Tong Chen, Qiu-Yan Luo, Ya-Ping Xu, Yan-Kang Dai, Shan-Lin Huang, Pei-Yu Guo, Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and properties of a thermally stable dysprosium porphyrin with a three-dimensional porous open framework, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 49, November 2014
  • Yan Sui, Xiao-Niu Fang, Rong-Hua Hu, Jia Li, Dong-Sheng Liu, A new type of multifunctional single ionic dysprosium complex based on chiral salen-type Schiff base ligand, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 423, Part A, 1 November 2014
  • Yingjie Zhang, Mohan Bhadbhade, Nicholas Scales, Inna Karatchevtseva, Jason R. Price, Kim Lu, Gregory R. Lumpkin, Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—From simple dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 219, November 2014
  • B. Mamatha, P. Sarah, Effect of dysprosium substitution on electrical properties of SrBi4Ti4O15, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 147, Issue 3, 15 October 2014
  • Wei-Lu Xiong, Qing-Yan Liu, Cai-Ming Liu, Yu-Ling Wang, Slow magnetization relaxation in a one-dimensional dysprosium-carboxylate compound based on the linear Dy4 units synthesized ionothermally from a deep-eutectic solvent, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 48, October 2014
  • Gordon A. Alanko, Daniel D. Osterberg, Brian J. Jaques, Michael F. Hurley, Darryl P. Butt, Kinetics of the Nitridation of Dysprosium During Mechanochemical Processing, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Available online 20 September 2014
  • Yan Wang, Bin Cui, Lulu Zhang, Zhenyu Hu, Yaoyu Wang, Phase composition, microstructure, and dielectric properties of dysprosium-doped Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3-based Y5V ceramics with high permittivity, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • Shuang-Yan Lin, Jinkui Tang, Versatile tetranuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets, Polyhedron, Available online 12 June 2014

Dysprosium Isotopes


Naturally occurring dysprosium (Dy) has 7 stable isotopes: 156Dy, 158Dy, 160Dy, 161Dy, 162Dy, 163Dy and 164Dy

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
156Dy 155.924283 Observationally Stable 0+
158Dy 157.924409 Observationally Stable 0+
160Dy 159.9251975 Observationally Stable 0+
161Dy 160.9269334 Observationally Stable 5/2+
162Dy 161.9267984 Observationally Stable 0+
163Dy 162.9287312 Stable 5/2-
164Dy 163.9291748 Stable 0+