Dysprosium Elemental Symbol
Dysprosium



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Dysprosium Dysprosium Disprosio Disprósio Disprosio Dysprosium

Dysprosium Element SymbolDysprosium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Dysprosium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of dysprosium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f10 6s2. The dysprosium atom has an atomic radius of 178 pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 229 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7429-91-6, dysprosium has a silvery-white appearance. Dysprosium is found in various minerals including bastnäsite, blomstrandine, euxenite, fergusonite, gadolinite, monazite, polycrase and xenotime. It is not found in nature as a free element. Elemental Dysprosium Picture Monazite sand is the primary commercial source of dysprosium. Dysprosium was first discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. The element name originates from the Greek word 'dysprositos' meaning hard to get at.

Dysprosium is most commonly used in neodymium-iron-boron high strength permanent magnets. While it has one of the highest magnetic moments of any of the rare earths (10.6µB), this has not resulted in an ability to perform on its own as a practical alternative to neodymium compositions. It is however now an essential additive in NdFeB production. Dysprosium is also used in special ceramic compositions based on BaTiO formulations. Recent research has examined the use of dysprosium in dysprosium-iron-garnet (DyIG) and High Purity (99.995%) Dysprosium (Dy) Sputtering Target silicon implanted with dysprosium and holmium to form donor centers. Dysprosium is added to various advanced optical formulations due to the fact that it emits in the 470-500 and 570-600 nm wavelengths. Dysprosium metal is used in rare earth magnet alloys and magnesium alloys. Due to dysprosium's high susceptibility to magnetization, it is also used in a variety of data storage applications, such as in compact discs. High Purity (99.999%) Dysprosium Oxide (Dy2O3) Powder Dysprosium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Dysprosium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Dysprosium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Dysprosium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Dysprosium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Dysprosium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Dy Melting Point: 1412 oC, 2573.6 oF, 1685.15 K
Atomic Number: 66 Boiling Point: 2567 oC, 4652.6 oF, 2840.15 K
Atomic Weight: 162.5 Density: 8.550 gm/cc
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.37 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0414 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 67 K-cal/gm atom at 2562 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.10 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 66 Thermal Conductivity: 0.107 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 66 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 9.9 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 96 Electrical Resistivity: 57.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f106s2 Electronegativity: 1.22 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 178 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 192±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.7 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 229 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 61.4 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 24.7 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 40.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.247
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 573.02 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 540 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1125.99 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 500 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2199.88 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2710 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7429-91-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22355 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23912 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010982 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-073-9 Discovered By: Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1886
SMILES Identifier: [Dy]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Dy Other Names: Disprosio
InChI Key: KBQHZAAAGSGFKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Dysprosium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Dysprosium

  • Yan Wang, Bin Cui, Lulu Zhang, Zhenyu Hu, Yaoyu Wang, Phase composition, microstructure, and dielectric properties of dysprosium-doped Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3-based Y5V ceramics with high permittivity, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • Yingjie Zhang, Mohan Bhadbhade, Nicholas Scales, Inna Karatchevtseva, Jason R. Price, Kim Lu, Gregory R. Lumpkin, Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—from simple Dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Available online 14 July 2014
  • Shuang-Yan Lin, Jinkui Tang, Versatile tetranuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets, Polyhedron, Available online 12 June 2014
  • M.F. Al-Kuhaili, S.M.A. Durrani, Structural and optical properties of dysprosium oxide thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 591, 5 April 2014
  • Lu Wang, Dongqing Li, Jian Chang, Hongbo Guo, Shengkai Gong, Huibin Xu, Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of Dysprosium/S-Doped ß-NiAl Alloys at 1200 °C, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 2014
  • José A. Jiménez, Twofold-coordinated tin centers as UV sensitizers of trivalent dysprosium ions, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 387, 1 March 2014
  • V. Koval, I. Skorvanek, M. Reece, L. Mitoseriu, H. Yan, Effect of dysprosium substitution on crystal structure and physical properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 3, March 2014
  • Hengchao Sun, Likun Pan, Xianqing Piao, Zhuo Sun, Enhanced performance of cadmium selenide quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by incorporating long afterglow europium, dysprosium co-doped strontium aluminate phosphors, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 416, 15 February 2014
  • A. Cherif, S. Jomni, W. Belgacem, N. Elghoul, K. Khirouni, L. Beji, The temperature dependence on the electrical properties of dysprosium oxide deposited on p-Si substrate, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Available online 7 February 2014
  • R. Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R. Martínez-Martínez, Z. Rivera-Alvarez, J. Santoyo-Salazar, C. Falcony, Photo and cathodoluminescence characteristics of dysprosium doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles prepared by Polyol method, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 146, February 2014
  • L. Jyothi, G. Upender, R. Kuladeep, D. Narayana Rao, Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of titanium-tungstate-tellurite glasses doped with dysprosium, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 50, February 2014
  • Mengsi Yang, Jianhua Jin, Guiqing Xu, Fengling Cui, Hongxia Luo, A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs, Chemical Physics, Volume 428, 15 January 2014
  • Y. Karabulut, A. Canimoglu, Z. Kotan, O. Akyuz, E. Ekdal, Luminescence of dysprosium doped strontium aluminate phosphors by codoping with manganese ion, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 583, 15 January 2014
  • Qi-Guo Hu, Zong-Yang Shen, Yue-Ming Li, Zhu-Mei Wang, Wen-Qin Luo, Zhi-Xiang Xie, Enhanced energy storage properties of dysprosium doped strontium titanate ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 1, Part B, January 2014
  • Zhang Hongsong, Yan Shuqing, Chen Xiaoge, Preparation and thermophysical properties of fluorite-type samarium–dysprosium–cerium oxides, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 1, January 2014
  • José J. Baldoví, Juan M. Clemente-Juan, Eugenio Coronado, Alejandro Gaita-Ariño, Two pyrazolylborate dysprosium(III) and neodymium(III) single ion magnets modeled by a Radial Effective Charge approach, Polyhedron, Volume 66, 13 December 2013
  • Stuart K. Langley, Boujemaa Moubaraki, Keith S. Murray, Trinuclear, octanuclear and decanuclear dysprosium(III) complexes: Synthesis, structural and magnetic studies, Polyhedron, Volume 64, 12 November 2013
  • Huijie Zhang, Ruiqing Fan, Wei Chen, Xubin Zheng, Kai Li, Ping Wang, Yulin Yang, Two new dysprosium–organic frameworks contaning rigid dicarboxylate ligands: Synthesis and effect of solvents on the luminescent properties, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 143, November 2013
  • Zhijian TAN, Tingting LAN, Li GAO, Chunxiang ZHANG, Xiaowei LIU, Daling LUO, Qiang TANG, Comparison of thermoluminescence spectra of MgB4O7 doped with dysprosium and manganese, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 31, Issue 11, November 2013
  • Alexey B. Karpo, Anton V. Zasedatelev, Victor E. Pushkarev, Vitaly I. Krasovskii, Larisa G. Tomilova, Influence of blue valence absorption band on nonlinear absorption in dysprosium bisphthalocyanine studied by open aperture z-scan, Chemical Physics Letters, Volume 585, 14 October 2013

Dysprosium Isotopes


Naturally occurring dysprosium (Dy) has 7 stable isotopes: 156Dy, 158Dy, 160Dy, 161Dy, 162Dy, 163Dy and 164Dy

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
156Dy 155.924283 Observationally Stable 0+
158Dy 157.924409 Observationally Stable 0+
160Dy 159.9251975 Observationally Stable 0+
161Dy 160.9269334 Observationally Stable 5/2+
162Dy 161.9267984 Observationally Stable 0+
163Dy 162.9287312 Stable 5/2-
164Dy 163.9291748 Stable 0+