Dysprosium Elemental Symbol
Dysprosium



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Dysprosium Dysprosium Disprosio Disprósio Disprosio Dysprosium

Dysprosium Element SymbolDysprosium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Dysprosium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of dysprosium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f10 6s2. The dysprosium atom has an atomic radius of 178 pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 229 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7429-91-6, dysprosium has a silvery-white appearance. Dysprosium is found in various minerals including bastnäsite, blomstrandine, euxenite, fergusonite, gadolinite, monazite, polycrase and xenotime. It is not found in nature as a free element. Elemental Dysprosium Picture Monazite sand is the primary commercial source of dysprosium. Dysprosium was first discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. The element name originates from the Greek word 'dysprositos' meaning hard to get at.

Dysprosium is most commonly used in neodymium-iron-boron high strength permanent magnets. While it has one of the highest magnetic moments of any of the rare earths (10.6µB), this has not resulted in an ability to perform on its own as a practical alternative to neodymium compositions. It is however now an essential additive in NdFeB production. Dysprosium is also used in special ceramic compositions based on BaTiO formulations. Recent research has examined the use of dysprosium in dysprosium-iron-garnet (DyIG) and High Purity (99.995%) Dysprosium (Dy) Sputtering Target silicon implanted with dysprosium and holmium to form donor centers. Dysprosium is added to various advanced optical formulations due to the fact that it emits in the 470-500 and 570-600 nm wavelengths. Dysprosium metal is used in rare earth magnet alloys and magnesium alloys. Due to dysprosium's high susceptibility to magnetization, it is also used in a variety of data storage applications, such as in compact discs. High Purity (99.999%) Dysprosium Oxide (Dy2O3) Powder Dysprosium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Dysprosium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Dysprosium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Dysprosium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Dysprosium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Dysprosium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Dy Melting Point: 1412 oC, 2573.6 oF, 1685.15 K
Atomic Number: 66 Boiling Point: 2567 oC, 4652.6 oF, 2840.15 K
Atomic Weight: 162.5 Density: 8.550 gm/cc
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.37 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0414 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 67 K-cal/gm atom at 2562 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.10 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 66 Thermal Conductivity: 0.107 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 66 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 9.9 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 96 Electrical Resistivity: 57.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f106s2 Electronegativity: 1.22 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 178 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 192±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.7 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 229 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 61.4 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 24.7 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 40.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.247
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 573.02 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 540 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1125.99 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 500 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2199.88 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2710 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7429-91-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22355 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23912 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010982 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-073-9 Discovered By: Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1886
SMILES Identifier: [Dy]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Dy Other Names: Disprosio
InChI Key: KBQHZAAAGSGFKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Dysprosium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Dysprosium

  • Selective recognition of dysprosium(III) ions by enhanced chemiluminescence CdSe quantum dots. Hosseini M, Ganjali MR, Vaezi Z, Faridbod F, Arabsorkhi B, Sheikhha MH. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014.
  • Enhanced performance of cadmium selenide quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by incorporating long afterglow europium, dysprosium co-doped strontium aluminate phosphors. Sun H, Pan L, Piao X, Sun Z. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 Feb.
  • Equation of state of zircon- and scheelite-type dysprosium orthovanadates: a combined experimental and theoretical study. Daszkowicz W, Ermakova O, López-Solano J, Mujica A, Muñoz A, Minikayev R, Lathe C, Gierlotka S, Nikolaenko I, Dabkowska H. J Phys Condens Matter. 2014 Jan.
  • Activation cross-sections of long lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 50MeV. Tárkányi F, Ditrói F, Takács S, Csikai J, Hermanne A, Ignatyuk AV. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013 Oct.
  • Panoscopic Structures by Hierarchical Cascade Self-Assembly of Inorganic Surfactants with Magnetic Heads Containing Dysprosium Ions. Polarz S, Bährle C, Landsmann S, Klaiber A. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Oct.
  • Capillary microextraction combined with fluorinating assisted electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the determination of trace lanthanum, europium, dysprosium and yttrium in human hair. Wu S, Hu C, He M, Chen B, Hu B. Talanta. 2013 Oct.
  • Mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) di-dysprosium sandwich complexes. Effect of magnetic coupling on the SMM behavior. Wang H, Liu C, Liu T, Zeng S, Cao W, Ma Q, Duan C, Dou J, Jiang J. Dalton Trans. 2013 Oct.
  • Evidence of slow relaxation of magnetization in dysprosium-based ionic liquids. Prodius D, Macaev F, Lan Y, Novitchi G, Pogrebnoi S, Stingaci E, Mereacre V, Anson CE, Powell AK. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 Oct.
  • Slow magnetic relaxation in four square-based pyramidal dysprosium hydroxo clusters ligated by chiral amino acid anions - a comparative study. Thielemann DT, Wagner AT, Lan Y, Anson CE, Gamer MT, Powell AK, Roesky PW. Dalton Trans. 2013 Oct.
  • Butterfly-Shaped Pentanuclear Dysprosium Single-Molecule Magnets. Tian H, Zhao L, Lin H, Tang J, Li G. Chemistry.
  • Slow magnetic relaxation in tris(diphosphanylamido) and tetra(phosphanoamido) dysprosium complexes. Völcker F, Lan Y, Powell AK, Roesky PW. Dalton Trans. 2013 Jul.
  • Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of a New Family of Tetra-nuclear {Mn2(III)Ln2}(Ln = Dy, Gd, Tb, Ho) Clusters With an Arch-Type Topology: Single-Molecule Magnetism Behavior in the Dysprosium and Terbium Analogues. Chandrasekhar V, Bag P, Speldrich M, van Leusen J, Kögerler P. Inorg Chem. 2013 May.
  • A triangular dysprosium with asymmetric central caps featuring ferromagnetic coupling and single-molecule magnet behaviour. Shen S, Xue S, Lin SY, Zhao L, Tang J. Dalton Trans. 2013.
  • Solvent Responsive Magnetic Dynamics of a Dinuclear Dysprosium Single Molecule Magnet. Ren M, Bao SS, Hoshino N, Akutagawa T, Wang B, Ding YC, Wei S, Zheng LM. Chemistry. 2013.
  • Heterometallic octanuclear RE(III)3Ni(II)5 (RE = Dy(III), Gd(III) and Y(III)) clusters with slow magnetic relaxation for the dysprosium derivative. Wang H, Ke H, Lin SY, Guo Y, Zhao L, Tang J, Li YH. Dalton Trans. 2013.
  • Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Hydrogen-Bonded 2D Array of Mononuclear Dysprosium(III) Oxamates. Fortea-Pérez FR, Vallejo J, Julve M, Lloret F, De Munno G, Armentano D, Pardo E. Inorg Chem.
  • Slow Magnetic Relaxation in Condensed versus Dispersed Dysprosium(III) Mononuclear Complexes. Cosquer G, Pointillart F, Golhen S, Cador O, Ouahab L. Chemistry. 2013.
  • Spectroscopy of a narrow-line optical pumping transition in atomic dysprosium. Schmitt M, Henn EA, Billy J, Kadau H, Maier T, Griesmaier A, Pfau T. Opt Lett. 2013.
  • A hydride-ligated dysprosium single-molecule magnet. Venugopal A, Tuna F, Spaniol TP, Ungur L, Chibotaru LF, Okuda J, Layfield RA. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013.
  • Preparation and study of an f,f,f',f'' covalently linked tetranuclear hetero-trimetallic complex - a europium, terbium, dysprosium triad. Sørensen TJ, Tropiano M, Blackburn OA, Tilney JA, Kenwright AM, Faulkner S. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013.

Dysprosium Isotopes


Naturally occurring dysprosium (Dy) has 7 stable isotopes: 156Dy, 158Dy, 160Dy, 161Dy, 162Dy, 163Dy and 164Dy

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
156Dy 155.924283 Observationally Stable 0+
158Dy 157.924409 Observationally Stable 0+
160Dy 159.9251975 Observationally Stable 0+
161Dy 160.9269334 Observationally Stable 5/2+
162Dy 161.9267984 Observationally Stable 0+
163Dy 162.9287312 Stable 5/2-
164Dy 163.9291748 Stable 0+