Gadolinium Elemental Symbol
Gadolinium



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Gadolinium Gadolinium Gadolinio Gadolíneo Gadolinio Gadolinium

Elemental Gadolinium PictureGadolinium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Gadolinium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Gadolinium’s shells is 2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2. The gadolinium atom has a radius of 180.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 237.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-54-2, gadolinium has a silvery-white appearance. Gadolinium was discovered by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in 1880 and first isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. The element is named after the Finnish chemist and geologist Johan Gadolin.

Gadolinium is utilized for both its high magnetic moment (7.94µB) and in phosphors and scintillator material. When complexed with EDTA ligands, it is used as an injectable contrast agent for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. With its high magnetic moment, gadolinium can reduce relaxation times and thereby enhance signal intensity. The extra stable half-full 4f electron shell with no low lying energy levels creates applications as an inert phosphor host. Gadolinium can therefore act as hosts for x-ray cassettes and in scintillator materials for computer tomography. High Purity (99.999%) Gadolinium Oxide (Gd2O3) Powder Gadolinium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Gadolinium (Gd) Sputtering TargetGadolinium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Gadolinium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Gadolinium is very toxic. Safety data for Gadolinium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Gadolinium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Gd Melting Point: 1313 oC, 2395.4 oF, 1586.15 K
Atomic Number: 64 Boiling Point: 3273 oC, 5923.4 oF, 3546.15 K
Atomic Weight: 157.25 Density: 7901 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.4 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.055 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 72 K-Cal/gm atom at 3266°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 3.70 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 64 Thermal Conductivity: 0.105 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 64 Thermal Expansion: (100 °C, α, poly) 9.4 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 93 Electrical Resistivity: 140.5 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f75d16s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 180 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 196±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 37.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 237 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 54.8 GPa
Oxidation States: 1, 2, 3 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 21.8 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 37.9 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.259
Magnetic Ordering: ferromagnetic/paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 593.40 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 570 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1166.52 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 1990.51 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2680 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-54-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22418 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23982 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011022 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-162-2 Discovered By: Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1880
SMILES Identifier: [Gd]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Gd Other Names: Gadolinio, Gadolíneo
InChI Key: UIWYJDYFSGRHKR-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Gadolinium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds  •  Alloys
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Gadolinium Arsenide
Gadolinium Gallium Oxide
Gadolinium Nitride GdN
Gadolinium Nitride GdN3
Gadolium Phosphide
Gadolinium Selenide
Gadolinium Sulfide
Gadolinium Telluride
Er:GDVO4
Gadolinia Doped Ceria
Gadolinium Gallium Garnet GGG
Gadolinium Scandium Oxide
Gadolinium doped Zinc Oxide Gd:ZnO
Ho:GDVO4
Lanthanum Strontium Manganite - Gadolinium Doped Ceria (LSM20-GDC10)
Neodymium doped Gadolinium Orthovanadate
Neodymium doped Potassium-Gadolinium Tungstate
Tm:GDVO4
Yb:GDVO4
Ytterbium doped Potassium-Gadolinium Tungstate


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Gadolinium SputteringTarget
Cobalt Iron Gadolinium SputteringTarget
Gadolinium Cerium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Erbium Silicon Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Iron Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Phosphide Sputtering Targets
Gadolinium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Selenide Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Telluride Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Terbium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Titanium Sputtering Target
Iron Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Gadolinium Sputtering Target


Oxide Forms

Gadolinium Oxide Nanopowder
Gadolinium Oxide Particles
Gadolinium Oxide Pellets
Gadolinium Oxide Pieces
Gadolinium Oxide Powder
Gadolinium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Shot
Gadolinium Oxide Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Tablets


Recent Research & Development for Gadolinium

  • Doubly TEMPO-coordinated gadolinium(iii), lanthanum(iii), and yttrium(iii) complexes. Strong superexchange coupling across rare earth ions. Murakami R, Nakamura T, Ishida T. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Magnetic Properties of a Copper-Gadolinium Complex Derived from a Hydroxybenzohydrazide Ligand. Costes JP, Duhayon C, Vendier L. Inorg Chem. 2014.
  • Clinical significance of late gadolinium enhancement in patients <20 years of age with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Smith BM, Dorfman AL, Yu S, Russell MW, Agarwal PP, Mahani MG, Lu JC. Am J Cardiol. 2014.
  • Micellar self-assemblies of gadolinium(iii)/europium(iii) amphiphilic complexes as model contrast agents for bimodal imaging. Debroye E, Eliseeva SV, Laurent S, Vander Elst L, Muller RN, Parac-Vogt TN. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by different concentrations of gadolinium ion. Zhao J, Zhou ZQ, Jin JC, Yuan L, He H, Jiang FL, Yang XG, Dai J, Liu Y. Chemosphere. 2014.
  • High mitochondrial accumulation of new gadolinium(iii) agents within tumour cells. Morrison DE, Aitken JB, de Jonge MD, Ioppolo JA, Harris HH, Rendina LM. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014.
  • The use of gadolinium-carbon nanostructures to magnetically enhance stem cell retention for cellular cardiomyoplasty. Biomaterials 2014. | first author:Tran LA
  • Breast Cancer Cells Imaging By Targeting Methionine Transporters with Gadolinium-Based Nanoprobe. Mehravi B, Ardestani MS, Damercheli M, Soltanghoraee H, Ghanaldarlaki N, Alizadeh AM, Oghabian MA, Shirazi MS, Mahernia S, Amanlou M. Mol Imaging Biol. 2014.
  • Formation of Coordination Polymers or Discrete Adducts via Reactions of Gadolinium(III)-Copper(II) 15-Metallacrown-5 Complexes with Polycarboxylates: Synthesis, Structures and Magnetic Properties. Pavlishchuk AV, Kolotilov SV, Zeller M, Thompson LK, Addison AW. Inorg Chem. 2014.
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid gadolinium hydroxide nanoclusters with controlled size and morphology. Dalton Trans. 2013 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Singh V
  • Prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in comparison with single-photon emission tomography using Tc99m-Sestamibi. Hadamitzky M, Langhans B, Hausleiter J, Sonne C, Byrne RA, Mehilli J, Kastrati A, Schömig A, Martinoff S, Ibrahim T. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014.
  • Gadolinium-free T(1) contrast agents for MRI: Tunable pharmacokinetics of a new class of manganese porphyrins. J Magn Reson Imaging. | first author:Cheng HL
  • Device artifact reduction for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and ventricular tachycardia: Late gadolinium enhancement correlation with electroanatomic mapping. Stevens SM, Tung R, Rashid S, Gima J, Cote S, Pavez G, Khan S, Ennis DB, Finn JP, Boyle N, Shivkumar K, Hu P. Heart Rhythm. 2014.
  • Incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients undergoing dialysis after contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-based contrast agents: the prospective fibrose nephrogénique systémique study. Amet S, Launay-Vacher V, Clément O, Frances C, Tricotel A, Stengel B, Gauvrit JY, Grenier N, Reinhardt G, Janus N, Choukroun G, Laville M, Deray G. Invest Radiol. 2014 Feb.
  • Correction to Gadolinium Acetylacetonate Tetraphenyl Monoporphyrinate Complex and Some of Its Derivatives: EXAFS Study and Molecular Dynamics Simulation. Inorg Chem. | first author:Agondanou JH
  • Characterization of the intestinal and hepatic uptake/efflux transport of the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium-ethoxylbenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic Acid. Jia J, Puls D, Oswald S, Jedlitschky G, Kühn JP, Weitschies W, Hosten N, Siegmund W, Keiser M. Invest Radiol. 2014 Feb.
  • Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy: Differential diagnosis and prediction of cardiac outcome. Machii M, Satoh H, Shiraki K, Saotome M, Urushida T, Katoh H, Takehara Y, Sakahara H, Ohtani H, Wakabayashi Y, Ukigai H, Tawarahara K, Hayashi H. Magn Reson Imaging. 2014.
  • Gadolinium-binding cyclic hexapeptoids: synthesis and relaxometric properties. De Cola C, Fiorillo G, Meli A, Aime S, Gianolio E, Izzo I, De Riccardis F. Org Biomol Chem. 2014 Jan.
  • Gadolinium complex and phosphorescent probe-modified NaDyF4 nanorods for T1- and T2-weighted MRI/CT/phosphorescence multimodality imaging. Biomaterials. 2014 | first author:Zhou J.
  • Gadolinium Contrast Agent-Induced CD163(+) Ferroportin(+) Osteogenic Cells in Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis. Swaminathan S, Bose C, Shah SV, Hall KA, Hiatt KM. Am J Pathol.

Gadolinium Isotopes


Gadolinium (Gd) has 6 stable isotopes: 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd and 160Gd.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
154Gd 153.9208656 Observationally Stable 0+
154Gd 154.9226220 Observationally Stable 3/2-
154Gd 155.9221227 Stable 0+
154Gd 156.9239601 Stable 3/2-
154Gd 157.9241039 Stable 0+
154Gd 159.9270541 Observationally Stable 0+