Gadolinium Elemental Symbol
Gadolinium



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Gadolinium Gadolinium Gadolinio Gadolíneo Gadolinio Gadolinium

Elemental Gadolinium PictureGadolinium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Gadolinium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Gadolinium’s shells is 2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2. The gadolinium atom has a radius of 180.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 237.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-54-2, gadolinium has a silvery-white appearance. Gadolinium was discovered by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in 1880 and first isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. The element is named after the Finnish chemist and geologist Johan Gadolin.

Gadolinium is utilized for both its high magnetic moment (7.94µB) and in phosphors and scintillator material. When complexed with EDTA ligands, it is used as an injectable contrast agent for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. With its high magnetic moment, gadolinium can reduce relaxation times and thereby enhance signal intensity. The extra stable half-full 4f electron shell with no low lying energy levels creates applications as an inert phosphor host. Gadolinium can therefore act as hosts for x-ray cassettes and in scintillator materials for computer tomography. High Purity (99.999%) Gadolinium Oxide (Gd2O3) Powder Gadolinium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Gadolinium (Gd) Sputtering TargetGadolinium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Gadolinium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Gadolinium is very toxic. Safety data for Gadolinium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Gadolinium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Gd Melting Point: 1313 oC, 2395.4 oF, 1586.15 K
Atomic Number: 64 Boiling Point: 3273 oC, 5923.4 oF, 3546.15 K
Atomic Weight: 157.25 Density: 7901 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.4 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.055 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 72 K-Cal/gm atom at 3266°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 3.70 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 64 Thermal Conductivity: 0.105 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 64 Thermal Expansion: (100 °C, α, poly) 9.4 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 93 Electrical Resistivity: 140.5 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f75d16s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 180 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 196±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 37.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 237 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 54.8 GPa
Oxidation States: 1, 2, 3 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 21.8 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 37.9 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.259
Magnetic Ordering: ferromagnetic/paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 593.40 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 570 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1166.52 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 1990.51 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2680 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-54-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22418 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23982 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011022 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-162-2 Discovered By: Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1880
SMILES Identifier: [Gd]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Gd Other Names: Gadolinio, Gadolíneo
InChI Key: UIWYJDYFSGRHKR-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Gadolinium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds  •  Alloys
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Compounds

Gadolinia Doped Ceria
Gadolinia Doped Ceria Paste
Gadolinium Acetate
Gadolinium(III) Acetate Hydrate
Gadolinium Acetate Solution
Gadolinium Aluminide
Gadolinium Bromide
Gadolinium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Gadolinium(III) Bromide Hydrate
Gadolinium Carbide
Gadolinium Carbonate
Gadolinium Chloride
Gadolinium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Gadolinium Chloride Hexahydrate
Gadolinium Chloride Hydrate
Gadolinium Chloride Solution
Gadolinium Fluoride
Gadolinium Hydride GdH2
Gadolinium Hydride GdH3
Gadolinium Hydroxide
Gadolinium(III) Hydroxide Hydrate
Gadolinium(III) Iodide
Gadolinium(III) Iodide, Ultra Dry
Gadolinium Nitrate
Gadolinium Nitrate Hexahydrate
Gadolinium Nitrate Solution
Gadolinium Oxide
Gadolinium Perchlorate
Gadolinium Sulfate
Gadolinium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate
Gadolinium Sulfate Solution
Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite - Gadolinium Doped Ceria (LSCF-GDC)
Lanthanum Strontium Manganite - Gadolinium Doped Ceria (LSM20-GDC10)
Sm-Eu-Gd Concentrate
Nickel Oxide - Gadolinium Doped Ceria

Isotopes

Gadolinium-155 Oxide Isotope
Gadolinium-156 Oxide Isotope
Gadolinium-158 Oxide Isotope
Gadolinium-160 Oxide Isotope


Nanomaterials

Cerium Oxide, Gadolinium doped Nanopowder
Gadolinium Nanoparticles
Gadolinium Oxide Nanopowder


Organometallic Compounds

Gadolinium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Gadolinium Acetylacetonate
Gadolinium Acetylacetonate Hydrate
Gadolinium DTPA
Gadolinium(III) Isopropoxide
Gadolinium Octanoate
Gadolinium Oxalate
Gadolinium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Tris(cyclopentadienyl) gadolinium
Tris(tetramethylcyclopentadienyl) gadolinium(III)
Tris[N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)amide] gadolinium(III)


Alloys

Gadolinium Silicon Germanium Alloy
Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Gadolinium Arsenide
Gadolinium Gallium Oxide
Gadolinium Nitride GdN
Gadolinium Nitride GdN3
Gadolium Phosphide
Gadolinium Selenide
Gadolinium Sulfide
Gadolinium Telluride
Er:GDVO4
Gadolinium Gallium Garnet GGG
Gadolinium Scandium Oxide
Gadolinium doped Zinc Oxide Gd:ZnO
Ho:GDVO4
Neodymium doped Gadolinium Orthovanadate
Neodymium doped Potassium-Gadolinium Tungstate
Tm:GDVO4
Yb:GDVO4
Ytterbium doped Potassium-Gadolinium Tungstate


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Gadolinium SputteringTarget
Cobalt Iron Gadolinium SputteringTarget
Gadolinium Cerium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Erbium Silicon Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Iron Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Phosphide Sputtering Targets
Gadolinium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Selenide Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Telluride Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Terbium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Titanium Sputtering Target
Iron Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Gadolinium Sputtering Target


Oxide Forms

Gadolinium Oxide Nanopowder
Gadolinium Oxide Particles
Gadolinium Oxide Pellets
Gadolinium Oxide Pieces
Gadolinium Oxide Powder
Gadolinium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Shot
Gadolinium Oxide Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Tablets


Recent Research & Development for Gadolinium

  • Marie Caisso, Florent Lebreton, Denis Horlait, Sébastien Picart, Philippe M. Martin, René Bès, Catherine Renard, Pascal Roussel, Daniel R. Neuville, Kathy Dardenne, Jörg Rothe, Thibaud Delahaye, André Ayral, Nanostructured gadolinium-doped ceria microsphere synthesis from ion exchange resin: Multi-scale in-situ studies of solid solution formation, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 218, October 2014
  • Daniel J. Gregg, Zhaoming Zhang, Gordon J. Thorogood, Brendan J. Kennedy, Justin A. Kimpton, Grant J. Griffiths, Paul R. Guagliardo, Gregory R. Lumpkin, Eric R. Vance, Cation antisite disorder in uranium-doped gadolinium zirconate pyrochlores, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 452, Issues 1–3, September 2014
  • Hiroyuki Usui, Masahito Nomura, Hiroki Nishino, Masatoshi Kusatsu, Tadatoshi Murota, Hiroki Sakaguchi, Gadolinium silicide/silicon composite with excellent high-rate performance as lithium-ion battery anode, Materials Letters, Volume 130, 1 September 2014
  • S.C. Panigrahi, Piyush R. Das, B.N. Parida, R. Padhee, R.N.P. Choudhary, Dielectric and electrical properties of gadolinium-modified lead-zirconate-titanate system, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 604, 15 August 2014
  • Hung-Wei Yang, Chiung-Yin Huang, Chih-Wen Lin, Hao-Li Liu, Chia-Wen Huang, Shih-Sheng Liao, Pin-Yuan Chen, Yu-Jen Lu, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chen-Chi M. Ma, Gadolinium-functionalized nanographene oxide for combined drug and microRNA delivery and magnetic resonance imaging, Biomaterials, Volume 35, Issue 24, August 2014
  • Wen Xing, Protima Rauwel, Charles H. Hervoches, Zuoan Li, Reidar Haugsrud, Structure and transport properties in un-doped and acceptor-doped gadolinium tungstates, Solid State Ionics, Volume 261, August 2014
  • Bruno L. Augusto, Fábio B. Noronha, Fabio C. Fonseca, Francisco N. Tabuti, Rita C. Colman, Lisiane V. Mattos, Nickel/gadolinium-doped ceria anode for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cell, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 39, Issue 21, 15 July 2014
  • D. Naga Durgasri, T. Vinodkumar, Fangjian Lin, Ivo Alxneit, Benjaram M. Reddy, Gadolinium doped cerium oxide for soot oxidation: Influence of interfacial metal-support interactions, Applied Surface Science, Available online 12 July 2014
  • D. Staicu, V.V. Rondinella, C.T. Walker, D. Papaioannou, R.J.M. Konings, C. Ronchi, M. Sheindlin, A. Sasahara, T. Sonoda, M. Kinoshita, Effect of burn-up on the thermal conductivity of uranium-gadolinium dioxide up to 100 GWd/tHM, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Available online 11 July 2014
  • Cuiling Wang, Xiaofeng Liang, Haijian Li, Huijun Yu, Zhen Li, Shiyuan Yang, Structure and properties of gadolinium loaded calcium phosphate glasses, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Available online 9 July 2014
  • Yang Zou, Fei Yin, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Jing Chen, Qing-Jin Meng, A CuII–GdIII–CuII heterometallic coordination polymer constructed by gadolinium(III) ion and copper(II) Schiff-base building block: Structure and magnetic property, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 45, July 2014
  • Imen Miladi, Marie-Thérèse Aloy, Emma Armandy, Pierre Mowat, David Kryza, Nicolas Magné, Olivier Tillement, François Lux, Claire Billotey, Marc Janier, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Combining ultrasmall gadolinium-based nanoparticles with photon irradiation overcomes radioresistance of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, Available online 28 June 2014
  • T.S. Senthil, Dongjin Kim, N. Muthukumarasamy, Misook Kang, Closely packed dense network rutile nanorods with gadolinium for efficient dye sensitized solar cells, Applied Surface Science, Available online 20 June 2014
  • A. Akbari-Fakhrabadi, R.V. Mangalaraja, M.A. Gracia Pinilla, M. Jamshidijam, S.H. Chan, Structural studies on the gadolinium doped nanoceria prepared by combustion synthesis, Materials Letters, Volume 125, 15 June 2014
  • Matthew Luchette, Houari Korideck, Mike Makrigiorgos, Olivier Tillement, Ross Berbeco, Radiation dose enhancement of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles on HeLa cells, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, Available online 15 June 2014
  • Md.T. Rahman, C.V. Ramana, Gadolinium-substitution induced effects on the structure and AC electrical properties of cobalt ferrite, Ceramics International, Available online 6 June 2014
  • Maciej Zalas, Gadolinium-modified titanium oxide materials for photoenergy applications: a review, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 6, June 2014
  • Miao YANG, Yaohui LIU, Jiaan LIU, Yulai SONG, Corrosion and mechanical properties of AM50 magnesium alloy after being modified by 1 wt.% rare earth element gadolinium, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 6, June 2014
  • Erika Porcel, Olivier Tillement, François Lux, Pierre Mowat, Noriko Usami, Katsumi Kobayashi, Yoshiya Furusawa, Claude Le Sech, Sha Li, Sandrine Lacombe, Gadolinium-based nanoparticles to improve the hadrontherapy performances, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, Available online 17 May 2014
  • Michael J. Sgro, Warren E. Piers, Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of yttrium and gadolinium silyl complexes, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Available online 5 May 2014

Gadolinium Isotopes


Gadolinium (Gd) has 6 stable isotopes: 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd and 160Gd.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
154Gd 153.9208656 Observationally Stable 0+
154Gd 154.9226220 Observationally Stable 3/2-
154Gd 155.9221227 Stable 0+
154Gd 156.9239601 Stable 3/2-
154Gd 157.9241039 Stable 0+
154Gd 159.9270541 Observationally Stable 0+