Germanium Concentrate

High Purity Ge Metal Concentrate
CAS 7440-56-4


Product Product Code Order or Specifications
(2N) 99% Germanium Concentrate GE-M-02-CONC Contact American Elements
(3N) 99.9% Germanium Concentrate GE-M-03-CONC Contact American Elements
(4N) 99.99% Germanium Concentrate GE-M-04-CONC Contact American Elements
(5N) 99.999% Germanium Concentrate GE-M-05-CONC Contact American Elements

CHEMICAL
IDENTIFIER
Formula CAS No. PubChem SID PubChem CID MDL No. EC No Beilstein
Re. No.
SMILES
Identifier
InChI
Identifier
InChI
Key
Ge 7440-56-4 24855958 6326954 MFCD00085310 231-164-3 N/A [Ge] InChI=1S/Ge GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

PROPERTIES Mol. Wt. Appearance Density Tensile Strength Melting Point Boiling Point Thermal Conductivity Electrical Resistivity Eletronegativity Specific Heat Heat of Vaporization Heat of Fusion MSDS
72.61 Black Lump 5.323 gm/cc N/A 937.4°C 2830°C 0.602 W/cm/K @ 302.93 K microhm-cm @ 20°C 1.8 Paulings 0.077 Cal/g/K @ 25°C 68 K-cal/gm atom at 2830°C 8.3 Cal/gm mole Safety Data Sheet

Germanium ConcentrateAmerican Elements offers germanium concentrate with a majority germanium base component. Preparation of germanium concentrate typically involves the removal of water from an germanium solution. American Elements specializes in producing high purity Germanium Concentrate with the smallest possible average grain sizes for use in preparation of pressed and bonded sputtering targets and in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Metallic-Organic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). Germanium concentrate is similar to powder in that it is made up of minute, dry particles of pure substance. Concentrate is also useful in any application where high surface areas are desired such as water treatment and in fuel cell and solar applications. Nanoparticles (See also Nanotechnology Information and Quantum Dots) also produce very high surface areas. Our standard Concentrate particle sizes average in the range of - 325 mesh, - 100 mesh, 10-50 microns and submicron (< 1 micron). We can also provide many materials in the nanoscale range. See safety data and research below and pricing/lead time above. We also produce Germanium as rod, ingot, pieces, pellets, disc, granules, wire, and in compound forms, such as oxide. Other shapes are available by request. Germanium concentrate is advantageous for transportation since it reduces weight and volume. A solution can be reproduced at the time of usage with the addition of a solvent.

Germanium (Ge) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGermanium (atomic symbol: Ge, atomic number: 32) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 72.63. Germanium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 211 pm. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. In its elemental form, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state.High Purity (99.999%) Germanium (Ge) Metal It is commercially obtained from zinc ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. It is used extensively as a semiconductor in transitors, solar cells, and optical materials. Other applications include acting an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany," For more information on germanium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of germanium products, visit the Germanium Information Center.

HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
Warning
H315-H319-H335
Xi
36/37/38
26-36/39
LY5200000
N/A
3
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity        

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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.


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Recent Research & Development for Germanium

  • Y.Y. Du, B.J. Chen, E.Y.B. Pun, Z.Q. Wang, X. Zhao, H. Lin, Silver nanoparticles enhanced multichannel transition luminescence of Pr3+ in heavy metal germanium tellurite glasses, Optics Communications, Volume 334, 1 January 2015
  • Zhibo Yang, Shuai Bai, Hongwei Yue, Xiuwan Li, Dequan Liu, Shumei Lin, Fei Li, Deyan He, Germanium anode with lithiated-copper-oxide nanorods as an electronic-conductor for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, Materials Letters, Volume 136, 1 December 2014
  • Dong-Ho Kang, Jin-Hong Park, Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (α-Ge), Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 60, December 2014
  • Tobias Rosenthal, Simon Welzmiller, Lukas Neudert, Philipp Urban, Andy Fitch, Oliver Oeckler, Novel superstructure of the rocksalt type and element distribution in germanium tin antimony tellurides, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 219, November 2014
  • Qi-Jun Liu, Zheng-Tang Liu, Structural, elastic, and mechanical properties of germanium dioxide from first-principles calculations, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • L. de los Santos Valladares, A. Bustamante Dominguez, J. Llandro, S. Holmes, O. Avalos Quispe, R. Langford, J. Albino Aguiar, C.H.W. Barnes, Surface morphology of amorphous germanium thin films following thermal outgassing of SiO2/Si substrates, Applied Surface Science, Volume 316, 15 October 2014
  • Qi Cai, Baojian Xu, Lin Ye, Teng Tang, Shanluo Huang, Xiaowei Du, Xiaojun Bian, Jishen Zhang, Zengfeng Di, Qinghui Jin, Jianlong Zhao, Stable functionalization of germanium surface and its application in biomolecules immobilization, Applied Surface Science, Volume 316, 15 October 2014
  • S.M. Salman, S.N. Salama, H.A. Abo-Mosallam, The effect of aluminum and germanium oxides on the crystallization process and magnetic properties of Li2O–Fe2O3–SiO2 glass system, Ceramics International, Available online 3 October 2014
  • Milan Kr. Barman, Ashim Baishya, Thota Peddarao, Sharanappa Nembenna, Guanidinate stabilized germanium(II) and tin(II) amide complexes and their catalytic activity for aryl isocyanate cyclization, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Available online 2 October 2014
  • Chia-Yun Chou, Gyeong S. Hwang, On the origin of anisotropic lithiation in crystalline silicon over germanium: A first principles study, Applied Surface Science, Available online 1 October 2014