Germanium Samples

High Purity Ge Metal Samples
CAS 7440-56-4

Product Product Code Order or Specifications
(2N) 99% Germanium Samples GE-M-02-SAMP Contact American Elements
(3N) 99.9% Germanium Samples GE-M-03-SAMP Contact American Elements
(4N) 99.99% Germanium Samples GE-M-04-SAMP Contact American Elements
(5N) 99.999% Germanium Samples GE-M-05-SAMP Contact American Elements

Formula CAS No. PubChem SID PubChem CID MDL No. EC No Beilstein
Re. No.
Ge 7440-56-4 24855958 6326954 MFCD00085310 231-164-3 N/A [Ge] InChI=1S/Ge GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

PROPERTIES Mol. Wt. Appearance Density Tensile Strength Melting Point Boiling Point Thermal Conductivity Electrical Resistivity Eletronegativity Specific Heat Heat of Vaporization Heat of Fusion MSDS
72.61 Black Lump 5.323 gm/cc N/A 937.4°C 2830°C 0.602 W/cm/K @ 302.93 K microhm-cm @ 20°C 1.8 Paulings 0.077 Cal/g/K @ 25°C 68 K-cal/gm atom at 2830°C 8.3 Cal/gm mole Safety Data Sheet

Germanium SampleGermanium samples are suitable for metallurgical analysis, chemical analysis, physical testing, mechanical testing, failure analysis, fire & flammability testing, contaminant identification and weatherization studies. Metallurgical testing is used to determine quality by analyzing the microstructure of a sample under a microscope. American Elements specializes in producing irregular shaped Germanium Samples with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Metallic-Organic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). Germanium samples are available in dimensions appropriate for numerous testing procedures. Materials are produced using crystallization, solid state and other ultra high purification processes such as sublimation. Germanium samples are suitable for metallurgical analysis, chemical analysis, physical testing, mechanical testing, failure analysis, fire & flammability testing, contaminant identification and weatherization studies. Metallurgical testing is used to determine quality by analyzing the microstructure of a sample under a microscope. American Elements specializes in producing custom compositions for commercial and research applications and for new proprietary technologies. American Elements also casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced materials into rod, bar or plate form, as well as other machined shapes and through other processes such as nanoparticles (See also application discussion at Nanotechnology Information and at Quantum Dots) and in the form of solutions and organometallics. See research below. We also produce Germanium as rod, ingot, powder, pellets, disc, granules, wire, and in compound forms, such as oxide. Other shapes are available by request. A wide variety of American Elements products are available in sample form for materials and metallurgical testing procedures. Germanium samples vary in size and thickness.

Germanium (Ge) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGermanium (atomic symbol: Ge, atomic number: 32) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 72.63. Germanium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 211 pm. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. In its elemental form, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state.High Purity (99.999%) Germanium (Ge) Metal It is commercially obtained from zinc ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. It is used extensively as a semiconductor in transitors, solar cells, and optical materials. Other applications include acting an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany," For more information on germanium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of germanium products, visit the Germanium Information Center.

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Germanium Oxide Pellets Germanium Metal Germanium Nitrate Germanium Powder Germanium Foil
Germanium Sputtering Target Gadolinium Silicon Germanium Alloy Germanium Wire Germanium Pellets Germanium Oxide
Germanium Chloride Germanium Nanoparticles Germanium Acetate Solution Germanium Gold Metal Germanium Fluoride
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Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.

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Production Catalog Available in 36 Countries & Languages

Recent Research & Development for Germanium

  • Chia-Yun Chou, Gyeong S. Hwang, On the origin of the significant difference in lithiation behavior between silicon and germanium, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Siwen Zhang, Bosi Yin, Yang Jiao, Yang Liu, Xu Zhang, Fengyu Qu, Ahmad Umar, Xiang Wu, Ultra-long germanium oxide nanowires: Structures and optical properties, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • M.E. Koleva, M. Dutta, N. Fukata, SERS substrates of doped germanium nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 187, September 2014
  • Rene Feder, Carsten Bundesmann, Horst Neumann, Bernd Rauschenbach, Ion beam sputtering of germanium – Energy and angular distribution of sputtered and scattered particles, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 334, 1 September 2014
  • Bofei Liu, Lisha Bai, Xiaodan Zhang, Dekun Zhang, Changchun Wei, Jian Sun, Qian Huang, Xinliang Chen, Jian Ni, Guangcai Wang, Ying Zhao, Light management in hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 128, September 2014
  • Debasree Chowdhury, Debabrata Ghose, Safiul Alam Mollick, Homoepitaxy of germanium by hyperthermal ion irradiation, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • S.A. Mazen, N.I. Abu-Elsaad, Characterization and magnetic investigations of germanium-doped lithium ferrite, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 7, Part B, August 2014
  • Stefan Stefanov, Carmen Serra, Alessandro Benedetti, Jorge Carlos Conde, Jens Werner, Michael Oehme, Jörg Schulze, Stephan Wirths, Dan Buca, Stefano Chiussi, Structure and composition of Silicon–Germanium–Tin microstructures obtained through Mask Projection assisted Pulsed Laser Induced Epitaxy, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 125, 1 August 2014
  • S. Richter, S. Blaeser, L. Knoll, S. Trellenkamp, A. Fox, A. Schäfer, J.M. Hartmann, Q.T. Zhao, S. Mantl, Silicon–germanium nanowire tunnel-FETs with homo- and heterostructure tunnel junctions, Solid-State Electronics, Volume 98, August 2014
  • Johann Hlina, Rainer Zitz, Harald Wagner, Filippo Stella, Judith Baumgartner, Christoph Marschner, s-Bond Electron Delocalization of Branched Oligogermanes and Germanium Containing Oligosilanes, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Available online 14 July 2014
  • Minghuan Zhang, Rongsheng Cai, Yujuan Zhang, Chao Wang, Yiqian Wang, Guy G. Ross, David Barba, Evolution of microstructural defects with strain effects in germanium nanocrystals synthesized at different annealing temperatures, Materials Characterization, Volume 93, July 2014
  • Jian Ni, Qun Liu, JianJun Zhang, Jun Ma, Hao Wang, XiaoDan Zhang, Ying Zhao, Microcrystalline silicon–germanium solar cells with spectral sensitivities extending into 1300 nm, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 126, July 2014
  • Rahmat Agung Susantyoko, Xinghui Wang, Leimeng Sun, Kin Leong Pey, Eugene Fitzgerald, Qing Zhang, Germanium coated vertically-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes as lithium-ion battery anodes, Carbon, Available online 1 June 2014
  • V.A.G. Rivera, Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, E. Marega Jr., Green-to-red light tuning by up-conversion emission via energy transfer in Er3 +–Tm3 +-codoped germanium–tellurite glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volumes 392–393, 1 June 2014
  • Naoto Shirahata, Solution-processable white-light-emitting germanium nanocrystals, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 214, June 2014
  • A. Bablich, C. Merfort, J. Eliasz, H. Schäfer-Eberwein, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Boehm, Amorphous silicon germanium carbide photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor with a base-contact and a continuous tunable high current gain, Thin Solid Films, Volume 558, 2 May 2014
  • Chen Wang, Cheng Li, Shihao Huang, Weifang Lu, Guangming Yan, Maotian Zhang, Huanda Wu, Guangyang Lin, Jiangbin Wei, Wei Huang, Hongkai Lai, Songyan Chen, Phosphorus diffusion in germanium following implantation and excimer laser annealing, Applied Surface Science, Volume 300, 1 May 2014
  • N.R. Murphy, J.T. Grant, L. Sun, J.G. Jones, R. Jakubiak, V. Shutthanandan, C.V. Ramana, Correlation between optical properties and chemical composition of sputter-deposited germanium oxide (GeOx) films, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 7, May 2014
  • T.F. Wietler, J. Schmidt, D. Tetzlaff, E. Bugiel, Surfactant-mediated epitaxy of silicon germanium films on silicon (001) substrates, Thin Solid Films, Volume 557, 30 April 2014
  • Minsoo Kim, Younghyun Kim, Masafumi Yokoyama, Ryosho Nakane, SangHyeon Kim, Mitsuru Takenaka, Shinichi Takagi, Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications, Thin Solid Films, Volume 557, 30 April 2014