Germanium Samples

High Purity Ge Metal Samples
CAS 7440-56-4


Product Product Code Order or Specifications
(2N) 99% Germanium Samples GE-M-02-SAMP Contact American Elements
(3N) 99.9% Germanium Samples GE-M-03-SAMP Contact American Elements
(4N) 99.99% Germanium Samples GE-M-04-SAMP Contact American Elements
(5N) 99.999% Germanium Samples GE-M-05-SAMP Contact American Elements

CHEMICAL
IDENTIFIER
Formula CAS No. PubChem SID PubChem CID MDL No. EC No Beilstein
Re. No.
SMILES
Identifier
InChI
Identifier
InChI
Key
Ge 7440-56-4 24855958 6326954 MFCD00085310 231-164-3 N/A [Ge] InChI=1S/Ge GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

PROPERTIES Mol. Wt. Appearance Density Tensile Strength Melting Point Boiling Point Thermal Conductivity Electrical Resistivity Eletronegativity Specific Heat Heat of Vaporization Heat of Fusion MSDS
72.61 Black Lump 5.323 gm/cc N/A 937.4°C 2830°C 0.602 W/cm/K @ 302.93 K microhm-cm @ 20°C 1.8 Paulings 0.077 Cal/g/K @ 25°C 68 K-cal/gm atom at 2830°C 8.3 Cal/gm mole Safety Data Sheet

Germanium SampleGermanium samples are suitable for metallurgical analysis, chemical analysis, physical testing, mechanical testing, failure analysis, fire & flammability testing, contaminant identification and weatherization studies. Metallurgical testing is used to determine quality by analyzing the microstructure of a sample under a microscope. American Elements specializes in producing irregular shaped Germanium Samples with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Metallic-Organic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). Germanium samples are available in dimensions appropriate for numerous testing procedures. Materials are produced using crystallization, solid state and other ultra high purification processes such as sublimation. Germanium samples are suitable for metallurgical analysis, chemical analysis, physical testing, mechanical testing, failure analysis, fire & flammability testing, contaminant identification and weatherization studies. Metallurgical testing is used to determine quality by analyzing the microstructure of a sample under a microscope. American Elements specializes in producing custom compositions for commercial and research applications and for new proprietary technologies. American Elements also casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced materials into rod, bar or plate form, as well as other machined shapes and through other processes such as nanoparticles (See also application discussion at Nanotechnology Information and at Quantum Dots) and in the form of solutions and organometallics. See research below. We also produce Germanium as rod, ingot, powder, pellets, disc, granules, wire, and in compound forms, such as oxide. Other shapes are available by request. A wide variety of American Elements products are available in sample form for materials and metallurgical testing procedures. Germanium samples vary in size and thickness.

Germanium (Ge) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGermanium (atomic symbol: Ge, atomic number: 32) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 72.63. Germanium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 211 pm. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. In its elemental form, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state.High Purity (99.999%) Germanium (Ge) Metal It is commercially obtained from zinc ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. It is used extensively as a semiconductor in transitors, solar cells, and optical materials. Other applications include acting an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany," For more information on germanium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of germanium products, visit the Germanium Information Center.

HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
Warning
H315-H319-H335
Xi
36/37/38
26-36/39
LY5200000
N/A
3
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity        

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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.


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Request an MSDS or Certificate of Analysis





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Recent Research & Development for Germanium

  • Halometallate Complexes of Germanium(II) and (IV): Probing the Role of Cation, Oxidation State and Halide on the Structural and Electrochemical Properties. Bartlett PN, Cummings CY, Levason W, Pugh D, Reid G. Chemistry. 2014.
  • A Single-Step Reaction for Silicon and Germanium Nanorods. Lu X, Korgel BA. Chemistry. 2014.
  • New oligogermane with a five coordinate germanium atom: the preparation of 1-germylgermatrane. Zaitsev KV, Churakov AV, Poleshchuk OK, Oprunenko YF, Zaitseva GS, Karlov SS. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • Direct Observation of Metal-Insulator Transition in Single-Crystalline Germanium Telluride Nanowire Memory Devices Prior to Amorphization. Nukala P, Agarwal R, Qian X, Jang MH, Dhara S, Kumar K, Johnson AT, Li J, Agarwal R. Nano Lett. 2014.
  • Strained-Germanium Nanostructures for Infrared Photonics. Boztug C, Sánchez-Pérez JR, Cavallo F, Lagally MG, Paiella R. ACS Nano. 2014.
  • Enhanced Device Performance of Germanium Nanowire Junctionless (GeNW-JL) MOSFETs by Germanide Contact Formation with Ar Plasma Treatment. Yoon YG, Kim TK, Hwang IC, Lee HS, Hwang BW, Moon JM, Seo YJ, Lee SW, Jo MH, Lee SH. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014.
  • Reliability Enhancement of Germanium Nanowires Using Graphene as a Protective Layer: Aspect of Thermal Stability. Lee JH, Choi SH, Patole SP, Jang Y, Heo K, Joo WJ, Yoo JB, Hwang SW, Whang D. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014
  • Tailoring nanostructures in micrometer size germanium particles to improve their performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries. Ke FS, Mishra K, Jamison L, Peng XX, Ma SG, Huang L, Sun SG, Zhou XD. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
  • Silicon-based silicon-germanium-tin heterostructure photonics. Soref R. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014
  • High Performance Germanium Nanowire based Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through In-situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network. Nano Lett. 2014 | first author:Kennedy T
  • A functionalized Ge3-compound with a dual character of the central germanium atom. Li Y, Mondal KC, Lübben J, Zhu H, Dittrich B, Purushothaman I, Parameswaran P, Roesky HW. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
  • Colloidal Tin-Germanium Nanorods and Their Li-Ion Storage Properties. Bodnarchuk MI, Kravchyk KV, Krumeich F, Wang S, Kovalenko MV. ACS Nano. 2014 Feb.
  • Enhanced Device Performance of Germanium Nanowire Junctionless (GeNW-JL) MOSFETs by Germanide Contact Formation with Ar Plasma Treatment. Yoon YG, Kim TK, Hwang IC, Lee HS, Hwang BW, Moon JM, Seo YJ, Lee SW, Jo MH, Lee SH. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014
  • Stable divalent germanium, tin and lead amino(ether)-phenolate monomeric complexes: structural features, inclusion heterobimetallic complexes, and ROP catalysis. Wang L, RoÅŸca SC, Poirier V, Sinbandhit S, Dorcet V, Roisnel T, Carpentier JF, Sarazin Y. Dalton Trans. 2014
  • Silicon-Germanium Nanowires: Chemistry and Physics in Play, from Basic Principles to Advanced Applications. Chem Rev. 2013 create date:2013/11/26 | first author:Amato M
  • Low Coordinate Germanium(II) and Tin(II) Hydride Complexes: Efficient Catalysts for the Hydroboration of Carbonyl Compounds. Hadlington TJ, Hermann M, Frenking G, Jones C. J Am Chem Soc. 2014
  • High-Performance Germanium Nanowire-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through in Situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network. Kennedy T, Mullane E, Geaney H, Osiak M, O'Dwyer C, Ryan KM. Nano Lett. 2014
  • Enhanced reversible lithium storage in germanium nano-island coated 3D hexagonal bottle-like Si nanorod arrays. Nanoscale. 2013 create date:2013/12/21 | first author:Yue C
  • Room-temperature epitaxial electrodeposition of single-crystalline germanium nanowires at the wafer scale from an aqueous solution. Fahrenkrug E, Gu J, Jeon S, Veneman PA, Goldman RS, Maldonado S. Nano Lett. 2014
  • Aqueous solution synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-germanium nanoparticles and their electrical property testing. Yin H, Luo J, Yang P. Nanoscale Res Lett.