|Formula||CAS No.||PubChem SID||PubChem CID||MDL No.||EC No||IUPAC Name||Beilstein
|PROPERTIES||Compound Formula||Mol. Wt.||Appearance||Melting Point||Boiling Point||Density||Monoisotopic Mass||Charge||MSDS|
|N/A||N/A||105.893249||105.89325 Da||0||Safety Data Sheet|
Germanium Sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.
Germanium (atomic symbol: Ge, atomic number: 32) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 72.63. The number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 211 pm. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. In its elemental form, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state. It is commercially obtained from zinc ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. It is used extensively as a semiconductor in transitors, solar cells, and optical materials. Other applications include acting an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany," For more information on germanium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of germanium products, visit the Germanium Information Center.
Sulfur or Sulphur (atomic symbol: S, atomic number: 16) is a Block P, Group 16, Period 3 element with an atomic radius of 32.066. The number of electrons in each of Sulfur's shells is 2, 8, 6 and its electron configuration is [Ne]3s2 3p4. In its elemental form, sulfur has a light yellow appearance. The sulfur atom has a covalent radius of 105 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 180 pm. In nature, sulfur can be found in hot springs, meteorites, volcanoes, and as galena, gypsum, and epsom salts. Sulfur has been known since ancient times but was not accepted as an element until 1777 when Antoine Lavoisier helped to convince the scientific community that it was an element and not a compound. For more information on sulfur, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of sulfur products, visit the Sulfur Information Center.
|HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION|
|Material Safety Data Sheet||MSDS|
|Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
|GERMANIUM SULFIDE SYNONYMS|
|Thioxo-λ2-germane, sulfanylidenegermanium, thioxogermanium, Germanium monosulfide, Germanium(II) sulfide|
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Germanium
- Halometallate Complexes of Germanium(II) and (IV): Probing the Role of Cation, Oxidation State and Halide on the Structural and Electrochemical Properties. Bartlett PN, Cummings CY, Levason W, Pugh D, Reid G. Chemistry. 2014.
- A Single-Step Reaction for Silicon and Germanium Nanorods. Lu X, Korgel BA. Chemistry. 2014.
- New oligogermane with a five coordinate germanium atom: the preparation of 1-germylgermatrane. Zaitsev KV, Churakov AV, Poleshchuk OK, Oprunenko YF, Zaitseva GS, Karlov SS. Dalton Trans. 2014.
- Direct Observation of Metal-Insulator Transition in Single-Crystalline Germanium Telluride Nanowire Memory Devices Prior to Amorphization. Nukala P, Agarwal R, Qian X, Jang MH, Dhara S, Kumar K, Johnson AT, Li J, Agarwal R. Nano Lett. 2014.
- Strained-Germanium Nanostructures for Infrared Photonics. Boztug C, Sánchez-Pérez JR, Cavallo F, Lagally MG, Paiella R. ACS Nano. 2014.
- Enhanced Device Performance of Germanium Nanowire Junctionless (GeNW-JL) MOSFETs by Germanide Contact Formation with Ar Plasma Treatment. Yoon YG, Kim TK, Hwang IC, Lee HS, Hwang BW, Moon JM, Seo YJ, Lee SW, Jo MH, Lee SH. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014.
- Reliability Enhancement of Germanium Nanowires Using Graphene as a Protective Layer: Aspect of Thermal Stability. Lee JH, Choi SH, Patole SP, Jang Y, Heo K, Joo WJ, Yoo JB, Hwang SW, Whang D. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014
- Tailoring nanostructures in micrometer size germanium particles to improve their performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries. Ke FS, Mishra K, Jamison L, Peng XX, Ma SG, Huang L, Sun SG, Zhou XD. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
- Silicon-based silicon-germanium-tin heterostructure photonics. Soref R. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014
- High Performance Germanium Nanowire based Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through In-situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network. Nano Lett. 2014 | first author:Kennedy T
- A functionalized Ge3-compound with a dual character of the central germanium atom. Li Y, Mondal KC, LÃ¼bben J, Zhu H, Dittrich B, Purushothaman I, Parameswaran P, Roesky HW. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
- Colloidal Tin-Germanium Nanorods and Their Li-Ion Storage Properties. Bodnarchuk MI, Kravchyk KV, Krumeich F, Wang S, Kovalenko MV. ACS Nano. 2014 Feb.
- Enhanced Device Performance of Germanium Nanowire Junctionless (GeNW-JL) MOSFETs by Germanide Contact Formation with Ar Plasma Treatment. Yoon YG, Kim TK, Hwang IC, Lee HS, Hwang BW, Moon JM, Seo YJ, Lee SW, Jo MH, Lee SH. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014
- Stable divalent germanium, tin and lead amino(ether)-phenolate monomeric complexes: structural features, inclusion heterobimetallic complexes, and ROP catalysis. Wang L, RoÅŸca SC, Poirier V, Sinbandhit S, Dorcet V, Roisnel T, Carpentier JF, Sarazin Y. Dalton Trans. 2014
- Silicon-Germanium Nanowires: Chemistry and Physics in Play, from Basic Principles to Advanced Applications. Chem Rev. 2013 create date:2013/11/26 | first author:Amato M
- Low Coordinate Germanium(II) and Tin(II) Hydride Complexes: Efficient Catalysts for the Hydroboration of Carbonyl Compounds. Hadlington TJ, Hermann M, Frenking G, Jones C. J Am Chem Soc. 2014
- High-Performance Germanium Nanowire-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through in Situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network. Kennedy T, Mullane E, Geaney H, Osiak M, O'Dwyer C, Ryan KM. Nano Lett. 2014
- Enhanced reversible lithium storage in germanium nano-island coated 3D hexagonal bottle-like Si nanorod arrays. Nanoscale. 2013 create date:2013/12/21 | first author:Yue C
- Room-temperature epitaxial electrodeposition of single-crystalline germanium nanowires at the wafer scale from an aqueous solution. Fahrenkrug E, Gu J, Jeon S, Veneman PA, Goldman RS, Maldonado S. Nano Lett. 2014
- Aqueous solution synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-germanium nanoparticles and their electrical property testing. Yin H, Luo J, Yang P. Nanoscale Res Lett.
Recent Research & Development for Sulfides
- Hydrogen sulfide and cell signaling: Team player or referee? Hancock JT, Whiteman M. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2014.
- Reactive iron sulfide (FeS)-supported ultrafiltration for removal of mercury (Hg(II)) from water. Han DS, Orillano M, Khodary A, Duan Y, Batchelor B, Abdel-Wahab A. Water Res. 2014.
- Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of anoxic sulfide oxidation by SO-NR mixed cultures from anoxic biotrickling filters. Mora M, Fernández M, Gómez JM, Cantero D, Lafuente J, Gamisans X, Gabriel D. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014.
- Synthesis of nickel sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as a novel adsorbent for the competitive removal of Methylene blue and Safranin-O. Ghaedi M, Pakniat M, Mahmoudi Z, Hajati S, Sahraei R, Daneshfar A. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014
- Disturbance of endogenous hydrogen sulfide generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in hippocampus are involved in homocysteine-induced defect in learning and memory of rats. Li MH, Tang JP, Zhang P, Li X, Wang CY, Wei HJ, Yang XF, Zou W, Tang XQ. Behav Brain Res. 2014
- Biochemical and behavioural responses of the marine polychaete Hediste diversicolor to cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs): Waterborne and dietary exposure. Buffet PE, Poirier L, Zalouk-Vergnoux A, Lopes C, Amiard JC, Gaudin P, Risso-de Faverney C, Guibbolini M, Gilliland D, Perrein-Ettajani H, Valsami-Jones E, Mouneyrac C. Chemosphere. 2014
- GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, shows potent anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity through blocking the STAT3 pathway. Lu S, Gao Y, Huang X, Wang X. Int J Oncol. 2014
- Manipulating surface ligands of Copper Sulfide nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and application to organic solar cells. Li J, Jiu T, Tao GH, Wang G, Sun C, Li P, Fang J, He L. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014
- Recolonization of macrozoobenthos on defaunated sediments in a hypertrophic brackish lagoon: Effects of sulfide removal and sediment grain size. Kanaya G. Mar Environ Res. 2014
- Experimental design based response surface methodology optimization of ultrasonic assisted adsorption of safaranin O by tin sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon. Roosta M, Ghaedi M, Daneshfar A, Sahraei R. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014
- Metal sulfide-functionalized DNA concatamer for ultrasensitive electronic monitoring of ATP using a programmable capillary-based aptasensor. Liu B, Zhang B, Chen G, Yang H, Tang D. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Mar.
- Self-assembly of manganese doped zinc sulfide quantum dots/CTAB nanohybrids for detection of rutin. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Miao Y
- Silver sulfide nanoparticles sensitized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays synthesized by in situ sulfurization for photocatalytic hydrogen production. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 | first author:Liu X
- A sensitive method for the sulfur isotope analysis of dimethyl sulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate in seawater. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2013 | first author:Said-Ahmad W
- Target-stimulated metallic HgS nanostructures on a DNA-based polyion complex membrane for highly efficient impedimetric detection of dissolved hydrogen sulfide. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 | first author:Zhuang J
- A fatal work-related poisoning by hydrogen sulfide: report on a case. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2013 create date:2013/11/08 | first author:Lancia M
- Highly enantioselective oxidation of phenyl methyl sulfide and its derivatives into optically pure (S)-sulfoxides with Rhodococcus sp. CCZU10-1 in an n-octane-water biphasic system. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 create date:2013/10/05 | first author:He YC
- Biochemical properties of nematode O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase paralogs imply their distinct roles in hydrogen sulfide homeostasis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 | first author:Vozdek R
- Involvement of hydrogen sulfide and homocysteine transsulfuration pathway in the progression of kidney fibrosis after ureteral obstruction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 | first author:Jung KJ
- High electrocatalytic activity of self-standing hollow NiCo2S4 single crystalline nanorod arrays towards sulfide redox shuttles in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. Chem Commun (Camb). | first author:Xiao J