|Formula||CAS No.||PubChem SID||PubChem CID||MDL No.||EC No||IUPAC Name||Beilstein
|PROPERTIES||Compound Formula||Mol. Wt.||Appearance||Melting Point||Boiling Point||Density||Monoisotopic Mass||Charge||MSDS|
|N/A||N/A||105.893249||105.89325 Da||0||Safety Data Sheet|
Germanium Sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.
Germanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. In its elemental form germanium's CAS number is 7440-56-4. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Germanium is not toxic. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with extremely high purities. When germanium is doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications; in December 2012, researchers from the Microsystems Technology Laboratories (MTL) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed a new type of p-type transitor by compressing germanium atoms between layers of silicon, yielding a result with unprecedented speeds of almost four times those of current commercial transistors. Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. The high refractive index and dispersion properties of its oxides have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. The field of organo-germanium chemistry is becoming increasingly important. Germanium is produced mainly from sphalerite but is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. See Germanium research below.
Sulfur is a Block P, Group 16, Period 3 element. The number of electrons in each of Sulfur's shells is 2, 8, 6 and its electronic configuration is [Ne]3s2 3p4. In its elemental form sulfur's CAS number is 7704-34-9. The sulfur atom has a radius of 100pm and its Van der Waals radius is 180pm. Sulfur is a crucial element for all life and serves as both fuels and respiratory (oxygen-replacing) materials for simple organisms. In nature, sulfur can be found in hot springs, meteorites, volcanoes, and as galena, gypsum, Epsom salts, and barite. Sulfur, when organically bonded, is a component of all proteins, as the amino acids methionine and cysteine. In organic form, Sulfur is present in the vitamins thiamine and biotin. Sulfur is also a vital part of many enzymes and also in antioxidant molecules like glutathione and thioredoxin. Sulfur is available as compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Sulfur has been known since ancient times but was not accepted as an element until 1777. Antoine Lavoisier helped to convince the scientific commuity that sulfus is an element and not a compound. See Sulfur research below.
|HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION|
|Material Safety Data Sheet||MSDS|
|Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
|GERMANIUM SULFIDE SYNONYMS|
|Thioxo-λ2-germane, sulfanylidenegermanium, thioxogermanium, Germanium monosulfide, Germanium(II) sulfide|
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Germanium
- Strongly Enhanced THz Emission caused by Localized Surface Charges in Semiconducting Germanium Nanowires. Lee WJ, Ma JW, Bae JM, Jeong KS, Cho MH, Kang C, Wi JS. Sci Rep. 2013 Jun 13;3:1984. doi: 10.1038/srep01984
- Germanium-tin alloy nanocrystals for high-performance lithium ion batteries. Cho YJ, Kim CH, Im HS, Myung Y, Kim HS, Back SH, Lim YR, Jung CS, Jang DM, Park J, Lim SH, Cha EH, Bae KY, Song MS, Cho WI. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Jun 10.
- Synthesis and Structure of Base-Stabilized Germanium(II) Diazide IPrGe(N3)2. Lyhs B, Bläser D, Wölper C, Schulz S, Haack R, Jansen G. Inorg Chem. 2013 May 24.
- Measurement of the Quantum Conductance of Germanium by an Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscope Break Junction Based on a Jump-To-Contact Mechanism. Xie X, Yan J, Liang J, Li J, Zhang M, Mao B. Chem Asian J. 2013 May 23. doi: 10.1002/asia.201300153.
- Kinetic origin of divergent decompression pathways in silicon and germanium. Wang JT, Chen C, Mizuseki H, Kawazoe Y. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Apr 19;110(16):165503.
- Reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of lithium hydride through alloying with germanium. Abbas MA, Grant DM, Brunelli M, Hansen TC, Walker GS. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 May 15.
- Stability and electronic properties of ultrathin films of silicon and germanium. Kaltsas D, Tsetseris L. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Jun 28;15(24):9710-5. doi: 10.1039/c3cp50944c.
- Protective effects of gallium, germanium, and strontium against ovariectomized osteoporosis in rats. Qin DW, Gu Z, Dai L, Ji C. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 Jun;153(1-3):350-4. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9694-8.
- Novel adaptations to zinc-silicate glass polyalkenoate cements: The unexpected influences of germanium based glasses on handling characteristics and mechanical properties. Dickey BT, Kehoe S, Boyd D. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013 Jul;23:8-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.03.012.
- Cytotoxicity of surface-functionalized silicon and germanium nanoparticles: the dominant role of surface charges. Bhattacharjee S, Rietjens IM, Singh MP, Atkins TM, Purkait TK, Xu Z, Regli S, Shukaliak A, Clark RJ, Mitchell BS, Alink GM, Marcelis AT, Fink MJ, Veinot JG, Kauzlarich SM, Zuilhof H. Nanoscale. 2013 Jun 7;5(11):4870-83. doi: 10.1039/c3nr34266b.
- Catalyst-free Direct Growth of a Single to a Few Layers of Graphene on a Germanium Nanowire for the Anode Material of a Lithium Battery. Kim H, Son Y, Park C, Cho J, Choi HC. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Jun 3;52(23):5997-6001. doi: 10.1002/anie.201300896.
- Nanoscale resonant-cavity-enhanced germanium photodetectors with lithographically defined spectral response for improved performance at telecommunications wavelengths. Balram KC, Audet RM, Miller DA. Opt Express. 2013 Apr 22;21(8):10228-33. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.010228.
- Three stage multilayer formation kinetics during adsorption of an anionic fluorinated surfactant onto germanium: Solution pH and salt effects. Xing R, Rankin SE. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Jul 1;401:88-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.03.024.
- Germanium sulfide(II and IV) nanoparticles for enhanced performance of lithium ion batteries. Cho YJ, Im HS, Myung Y, Kim CH, Kim HS, Back SH, Lim YR, Jung CS, Jang DM, Park J, Cha EH, Choo SH, Song MS, Cho WI. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 May 21;49(41):4661-3. doi: 10.1039/c3cc41853g.
- Small bowel perforation by a germanium stone. Jang JY, Shim H, Lee JG. Am Surg. 2013 Apr;79(4):E145-6.
- Synthesis and biological evaluation of Germanium(IV)-polyphenol complexes as potential anti-cancer agents. Pi J, Zeng J, Luo JJ, Yang PH, Cai JY. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 May 15;23(10):2902-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.03.061.
- Analysis of optical damage in germanium induced by a continuous wave laser. Lee KH, Shin WS, Kang EC. Appl Opt. 2013 Apr 1;52(10):2055-61. doi: 10.1364/AO.52.002055.
- Organ biodistribution of Germanium-68 in rat in the presence and absence of [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC for the extrapolation to the human organ and whole-body radiation dosimetry. Velikyan I, Antoni G, Sörensen J, Estrada S. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;3(2):154-65.
- Atomically abrupt silicon-germanium axial heterostructure nanowires synthesized in a solvent vapor growth system. Geaney H, Mullane E, Ramasse QM, Ryan KM. Nano Lett. 2013 Apr 10;13(4):1675-80. doi: 10.1021/nl400146u.
- Stability and exfoliation of germanane: a germanium graphane analogue. Bianco E, Butler S, Jiang S, Restrepo OD, Windl W, Goldberger JE. ACS Nano. 2013 May 28;7(5):4414-21. doi: 10.1021/nn4009406.
Recent Research & Development for Sulfides
- Methanogenic activities of sulfide and nitric oxide amended mesophilic, methanogenic culture: Role of nitrososufides complex. Lee DJ, Wong BT. Bioresour Technol. 2013 May 18;142C:63-68. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.035.
- Crosstalk between hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in endothelial cells. Altaany Z, Yang G, Wang R. J Cell Mol Med. 2013 Jun 7. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12077.
- Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Activation of Epithelial Sodium Channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5)P3 Dependent Pathway. Zhang J, Chen S, Liu H, Zhang B, Zhao Y, Ma K, Zhao D, Wang Q, Ma H, Zhang Z. PLoS One. 2013 May 31;8(5):e64304. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064304.
- Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS). Du Y, Liu G, Yan Y, Huang D, Luo W, Martinkova M, Man P, Shimizu T. Biometals. 2013 Jun 5.
- Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Abnormal Proliferation of Lymphocytes via AKT/GSK3ß Signal Pathway in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients. Han Y, Zeng F, Tan G, Yang C, Tang H, Luo Y, Feng J, Xiong H, Guo Q. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013 May 31;31(6):795-804.
- Evaluating the recovery performance of the ANAMMOX process following inhibition by phenol and sulfide. Jin RC, Zhang QQ, Yang GF, Xing BS, Ji YX, Chen H. Bioresour Technol. 2013 May 16;142C:162-170. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.022.
- Development of Selective Colorimetric Probes for Hydrogen Sulfide Based on Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution. Montoya LA, Pearce TF, Hansen RJ, Zakharov LN, Pluth MD. J Org Chem. 2013 Jun 4.
- L-cysteine and hydrogen sulfide increase PIP3 and AMPK/PPAR? expression and decrease ROS and vascular inflammation markers in high glucose treated human U937 monocytes. Manna P, Jain SK. J Cell Biochem. 2013 Jun 4. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24578.
- Hydrogen sulfide slows down progression of experimental Alzheimer's disease by targeting multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Giuliani D, Ottani A, Zaffe D, Galantucci M, Strinati F, Lodi R, Guarini S. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013 May 30. doi:pii: S1074-7427(13)00087-7. 10.1016/j.nlm.2013.05.006.
- Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome with Increased Erythrocytic Hydrogen Sulfide and Response to Midodrine Hydrochloride. Yang J, Zhao J, Du S, Liu D, Fu C, Li X, Chen S, Tang C, Du J, Jin H. J Pediatr. 2013 May 30. doi:pii: S0022-3476(13)00504-0. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.04.039.
- The role of black carbon conductivity in mediating hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) transformation on carbon surfaces by sulfides. Xu W, Pignatello JJ, Mitch WA. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 May 31.
- Deoxygenation of sulfoxides to sulfides with thionyl chloride and triphenylphosphine: Competition with the Pummerer reaction. Jang Y, Kim KT, Jeon HB. J Org Chem. 2013 May 31.
- Progress in bioleaching: fundamentals and mechanisms of bacterial metal sulfide oxidation-part A. Vera M, Schippers A, Sand W. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 May 30.
- Hydrogen Sulfide Donor NaHS Reduces Organ Injury in a Rat Model of Pneumococcal Pneumosepsis, Associated with Improved Bio-Energetic Status. Aslami H, Pulskens WP, Kuipers MT, Bos AP, van Kuilenburg AB, Wanders RJ, Roelofsen J, Roelofs JJ, Kerindongo RP, Beurskens CJ, Schultz MJ, Kulik W, Weber NC, Juffermans NP. PLoS One. 2013 May 23;8(5):e63497. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063497.
- Inhibition of Hydrogen Sulfide-induced Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Vascular Endothelial Cells: Potential Mechanisms of Gastric Cancer Prevention by Korean Red Ginseng. Choi KS, Song H, Kim EH, Choi JH, Hong H, Han YM, Hahm KB. J Ginseng Res. 2012 Apr;36(2):135-45. doi: 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.2.135.
- Intramolecular Nucleophilic Addition to the 2 Position of Coordinated 2,2'-Bipyridine by a Deprotonated Dimethyl Sulfide Ligand. Arévalo R, Pérez J, Riera L. Inorg Chem. 2013 May 28.
- Hydrogen sulfide donor, GYY4137, exhibits anti-atherosclerotic activity in high fat fed apolipoprotein E-/- mice. Liu Z, Han Y, Li L, Lu H, Meng G, Li X, Shirhan M, Peh MT, Xie L, Zhou S, Wang X, Chen Q, Dai W, Tan CH, Pan S, Moore PK, Ji Y. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 May 28. doi: 10.1111/bph.12246.
- [Hydrogen sulfide inhibits Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in spontaneously hypertensive rats]. Fiziol Zh. 2013;59(1):3-10.
- Decreased Endogenous Production of Hydrogen Sulfide Accelerates Atherosclerosis. Mani S, Li H, Untereiner A, Wu L, Yang G, Austin RC, Dickhout JD, Lhoták S, Meng QH, Wang R. Circulation. 2013 May 23.
- Dysregulation of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Producing Enzyme Cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) Contributes to Maternal Hypertension and Placental Abnormalities in Preeclampsia. Wang K, Ahmad S, Cai M, Rennie J, Fujisawa T, Crispi F, Baily J, Miller MR, Cudmore M, Hadoke PW, Wang R, Gratacós E, Buhimschi IA, Buhimschi CS, Ahmed A. Circulation. 2013 May 23.
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