Mercury Elemental Symbol
Mercury



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Mercure Quecksilber Mercurio Mercúrio Mercurio Kvicksilver

Mercury Bohr Model Mercury(Hg) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolMercury is a Block D, Group 12, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Mercury's shells is 2, 8, 18,32, 18, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2. The mercury atom has a radius of 216.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 155.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7439-97-6, mercury has a silvery appearance. Mercury is found both as a native metal and in cinnabar, corderoite, and livingstonite ores. Mercury was named after the planet "Mercury" and has been known since ancient times.

Mercury is used in the manufacture of industrial chemicals and in electronic applications. For example, mercury is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps. High Purity (99.999%) Mercury Oxide (HgO) Powder Mercury, as thiomersal, is used in the manufacture of mascara. Some thermometers, particularly those which are used to measure high temperatures, still use mercury. Many of the applications that mercury has been used for in the past are slowly being phased out due to health and safety regulations. Mercury is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Mercury is available in elemental or metallic form as mercury liquid. Oxides are available for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Mercury is also available in soluble forms including chlorides and nitrates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Mercury is very toxic. Safety data for Mercury and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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  • Safety Data
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  • Research
  • Isotopes
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Mercury Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Hg Melting Point: 234.32 K, −38.83 °C, −37.89 °F
Atomic Number: 80 Boiling Point: 629.88 K, 356.73 °C, 674.11 °F
Atomic Weight: 200.59 Density: 13.534 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 12, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.14 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 59.11 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.331 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 80 Thermal Conductivity: 8.30 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 80 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 60.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 121 Electrical Resistivity: (25 °C) 961nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s2 Electronegativity: 2.00 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 151 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 132±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.983 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 155 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 4, 2 (mercuric), 1 (mercurous) (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Liquid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: rhombohedral Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1007.07 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1809.69 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3299.82 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (liquid, 20 °C) 1451.4 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7439-97-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22373 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23931 Abundance in universe, by weight: 1 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011035 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.006 ppb
EC Number: 231-106-7 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Prior to 2000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Hg]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Hg Other Names: Mercure, Quecksilber, Mercurio
InChI Key: QSHDDOUJBYECFT-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Mercury


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H330-H360D-H372-H410
Hazard Codes T+,N
Risk Codes 61-26-48/23-50/53
Safety Precautions 53-45-60-61
RTECS Number OV4550000
Transport Information UN 2809 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Environment-Hazardous to the aquatic environment Health Hazard Skull and Crossbones-Acute Toxicity   

Mercury Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms
Organometallic Compounds   •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Mercury

  • Ali Akbar Khandar, Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Christos Lampropoulos, Masoumeh Servati Gargari, Veysel T. Yilmaz, Kishalay Bhar, Seyed Abolfazl Hosseini-Yazdi, John M. Cain, Ghodrat Mahmoudi, Coordination complexes and polymers from the initial application of phenyl-2-pyridyl ketone azine in mercury chemistry, Polyhedron, Volume 85, 8 January 2015
  • D.S. Volkov, M.A. Proskurnin, M.V. Korobov, Survey study of mercury determination in detonation nanodiamonds by pyrolysis flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy, Diamond and Related Materials, Volume 50, November 2014
  • Daniela Pinheiro, Catherine S. de Castro, J. Sérgio Seixas de Melo, Elisabete Oliveira, Cristina Nuñez, Adrián Fernández-Lodeiro, José Luis Capelo, Carlos Lodeiro, From yellow to pink using a fluorimetric and colorimetric pyrene derivative and mercury (II) ions, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 110, November 2014
  • Bo-Na Dai, Qian-Yong Cao, Ling Wang, Zi-Chen Wang, Zhenyu Yang, A new naphthalene-containing triazolophane for fluorescence sensing of mercury(II) ion, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 423, Part A, 1 November 2014
  • Sara Lahrich, Bouchaib Manoun, Moulay Abderrahim El Mhammedi, Sodium doping effect on physicochemical properties of K1−xNaxCaPb3(PO4)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) for the determination of mercury(II): Application in seawater samples, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • Fatemeh S. Sangsefidi, Noshin Mir, Masoud Salavati-Niasari, Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of HgTe nanoribbons from [Hg(Salen)] as mercury source, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Xiaofang Shen, Qin Wang, WenLing Chen, Yuehong Pang, One-step synthesis of water-dispersible cysteine functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions, Applied Surface Science, Volume 317, 30 October 2014
  • Subhi A. Al-Jibori, Zana S. Afandi, Kurt Merzweiler, Christoph Wagner, Harry Schmidt, Sucharita Basak-Modi, Graeme Hogarth, Mercury(II) saccharinate (sac) complexes: Synthesis and molecular structures of [Hg(sac)2(2-ampy)2], [Hg(sac)2(2-ampy)(MeOH)], [Hg(sac)2(2-abt)(MeOH)], [Hg(sac)2(2-abt)(dmso)] (2-ampy = 2-aminopyridine, 2-abt = 2-aminobenzothiazole), Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • Mateusz Wyrzykowski, René Kiesewetter, Josef Kaufmann, Robert Baumann, Pietro Lura, Pore structure of mortars with cellulose ether additions – Mercury intrusion porosimetry study, Cement and Concrete Composites, Volume 53, October 2014
  • José M. López-de-Luzuriaga, Miguel Monge, M. Elena Olmos, David Pascual, Analysis of fluorescence quenching of naphthalene by two mercury containing organometallic complexes, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014

Mercury Isotopes


Mercury has seven stable isotopes:

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
196Hg 195.965833 Observationally Stable 0+
198Hg 197.9667690 Observationally Stable 0+
199Hg 198.9682799 Observationally Stable 1/2-
200Hg 199.9683260 Observationally Stable 0+
201Hg 200.9703023 Observationally Stable 3/2-
202Hg 201.9706430 Observationally Stable 0+
204Hg 203.9734939 Observationally Stable 0+