Mercury Elemental Symbol
Mercury



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Mercure Quecksilber Mercurio Mercúrio Mercurio Kvicksilver

Mercury Bohr Model Mercury(Hg) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolMercury is a Block D, Group 12, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Mercury's shells is 2, 8, 18,32, 18, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2. The mercury atom has a radius of 216.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 155.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7439-97-6, mercury has a silvery appearance. Mercury is found both as a native metal and in cinnabar, corderoite, and livingstonite ores. Mercury was named after the planet "Mercury" and has been known since ancient times.

Mercury is used in the manufacture of industrial chemicals and in electronic applications. For example, mercury is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps. High Purity (99.999%) Mercury Oxide (HgO) Powder Mercury, as thiomersal, is used in the manufacture of mascara. Some thermometers, particularly those which are used to measure high temperatures, still use mercury. Many of the applications that mercury has been used for in the past are slowly being phased out due to health and safety regulations. Mercury is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Mercury is available in elemental or metallic form as mercury liquid. Oxides are available for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Mercury is also available in soluble forms including chlorides and nitrates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Mercury is very toxic. Safety data for Mercury and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
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  • Research
  • Isotopes
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Mercury Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Hg Melting Point: 234.32 K, −38.83 °C, −37.89 °F
Atomic Number: 80 Boiling Point: 629.88 K, 356.73 °C, 674.11 °F
Atomic Weight: 200.59 Density: 13.534 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 12, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.14 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 59.11 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.331 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 80 Thermal Conductivity: 8.30 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 80 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 60.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 121 Electrical Resistivity: (25 °C) 961nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s2 Electronegativity: 2.00 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 151 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 132±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.983 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 155 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 4, 2 (mercuric), 1 (mercurous) (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Liquid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: rhombohedral Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1007.07 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1809.69 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3299.82 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (liquid, 20 °C) 1451.4 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7439-97-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22373 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23931 Abundance in universe, by weight: 1 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011035 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.006 ppb
EC Number: 231-106-7 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Prior to 2000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Hg]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Hg Other Names: Mercure, Quecksilber, Mercurio
InChI Key: QSHDDOUJBYECFT-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Mercury


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H330-H360D-H372-H410
Hazard Codes T+,N
Risk Codes 61-26-48/23-50/53
Safety Precautions 53-45-60-61
RTECS Number OV4550000
Transport Information UN 2809 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Environment-Hazardous to the aquatic environment Health Hazard Skull and Crossbones-Acute Toxicity   

Mercury Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms
Organometallic Compounds   •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Mercury

  • Solid phase extraction of trace amounts of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead in various food samples based on ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mashhadizadeh MH, Amoli-Diva M, Shapouri MR, Afruzi H. Food Chem. 2014 May
  • Mercury speciation in fish muscles from major Czech rivers and assessment of health risks. Sedlácková L, Kružíková K, Svobodová Z. Food Chem. 2014
  • Contents of cadmium, mercury and lead in fish from the Atlantic sea (Morocco) determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem. 2014 create date:2013/11/12 | first author:Chahid A
  • A new method for preconcentration and determination of mercury in fish, shellfish and saliva by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Lemos VA, Dos Santos LO. Food Chem. 2014 Apr.
  • Preparation of quality control materials for the determination of mercury in rice. Food Chem. 2014 create date:2013/11/12 | first author:Eom Y
  • Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China. Food Chem. 2014 | first author:Fang Y
  • Effects of additional cysteine in fish diet on mercury concentration. Food Chem. 2014 | first author:Mok WJ
  • C60 reduces the bioavailability of mercury in aqueous solutions. Chemosphere. 2014 | first author:Shi WJ
  • Pathways and speciation of mercury in the environmental compartments of Deception Island, Antarctica. Chemosphere. 2014 | first author:Mão de Ferro A
  • The protective effect of clay minerals against damage to adsorbed DNA induced by cadmium and mercury. Chemosphere. 2014 | first author:Hou Y
  • A novel magnetic ion imprinted nano-polymer for selective separation and determination of low levels of mercury(II) ions in fish samples. Najafi E, Aboufazeli F, Lotfi Zadeh Zhad HR, Sadeghi O, Amani V. Food Chem. 2013 | first author:Najafi E
  • GFAAS determination of mercury in muscle samples of fish from Amazon, Brazil. Moraes PM, Santos FA, Cavecci B, Padilha CC, Vieira JC, Roldan PS, Padilha Pde M. Food Chem. 2013 | first author:Moraes PM
  • A FRET ratiometric fluorescence sensing system for mercury detection and intracellular colorimetric imaging in live Hela cells. Hu B, Hu LL, Chen ML, Wang JH. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 | first author:Hu B
  • Inverse mercury and selenium concentration patterns between herbivorous and piscivorous fish in the Tapajos River, Brazilian Amazon. Sampaio da Silva D, Lucotte M, Paquet S, Brux G, Lemire M. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013 | first author:Sampaio da Silva D
  • Assessment of a sequential extraction method to evaluate mercury mobility and geochemistry in solid environmental samples. Fernández-Martínez R, Rucandio I. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013 | first author:Fernández-Martínez R
  • A novel graphene-DNA biosensor for selective detection of mercury ions. Zhang Y, Zhao H, Wu Z, Xue Y, Zhang X, He Y, Li X, Yuan Z. Biosens Bioelectron. | first author:Zhang Y
  • Detoxification of Mercury by Methanobactin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Vorobev A, Jagadevan S, Baral BS, Dispirito AA, Freemeier BC, Bergman BH, Bandow NL, Semrau JD. Appl Environ Microbiol. | first author:Vorobev A
  • DNA functionalized gold nanorods/nanoplates assembly as sensitive LSPR-based sensor for label-free detection of mercury ions. Li D, Zheng G, Ding X, Wang J, Liu J, Kong L. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013 | first author:Li D
  • An ecologically framed mercury survey of finfish of the lower chesapeake bay. Xu X, Newman MC, Fabrizio MC, Liang L. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013 | first author:Xu X
  • Mercury and selenium concentrations in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): Population comparisons, implications for reproductive success, hazard quotients and directions for future research. Perrault JR, Miller DL, Garner J, Wyneken J. Sci Total Environ. 2013. | first author:Perrault JR.

Mercury Isotopes


Mercury has seven stable isotopes:

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
196Hg 195.965833 Observationally Stable 0+
198Hg 197.9667690 Observationally Stable 0+
199Hg 198.9682799 Observationally Stable 1/2-
200Hg 199.9683260 Observationally Stable 0+
201Hg 200.9703023 Observationally Stable 3/2-
202Hg 201.9706430 Observationally Stable 0+
204Hg 203.9734939 Observationally Stable 0+