Mercury Elemental Symbol

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Mercure Quecksilber Mercurio Mercúrio Mercurio Kvicksilver

Mercury Bohr Model Mercury(Hg) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolMercury is a Block D, Group 12, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Mercury's shells is 2, 8, 18,32, 18, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2. The mercury atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7439-97-6, mercury has a silvery appearance. Mercury is found both as a native metal and in cinnabar, corderoite, and livingstonite ores. Mercury was named after the planet "Mercury" and has been known since ancient times.

Mercury is used in the manufacture of industrial chemicals and in electronic applications. For example, mercury is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps. High Purity (99.999%) Mercury Oxide (HgO) Powder Mercury, as thiomersal, is used in the manufacture of mascara. Some thermometers, particularly those which are used to measure high temperatures, still use mercury. Many of the applications that mercury has been used for in the past are slowly being phased out due to health and safety regulations. Mercury is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Mercury is available in elemental or metallic form as mercury liquid. Oxides are available for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Mercury is also available in soluble forms including chlorides and nitrates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Mercury is very toxic. Safety data for Mercury and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Mercury Properties

Symbol: Hg Melting Point: 234.32 K, −38.83 °C, −37.89 °F
Atomic Number: 80 Boiling Point: 629.88 K, 356.73 °C, 674.11 °F
Atomic Weight: 200.59 Density: 13.534 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 12, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.14 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 59.11 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.331 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 80 Thermal Conductivity: 8.30 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 80 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 60.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 121 Electrical Resistivity: (25 °C) 961nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s2 Electronegativity: 2.00 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 151 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 132±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.983 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 155 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 4, 2 (mercuric), 1 (mercurous) (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Liquid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: rhombohedral Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1007.07 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1809.69 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3299.82 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (liquid, 20 °C) 1451.4 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7439-97-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22373 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23931 Abundance in universe, by weight: 1 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011035 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.006 ppb
EC Number: 231-106-7 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Prior to 2000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Hg]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Hg Other Names: Mercure, Quecksilber, Mercurio

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Mercury

Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H330-H360D-H372-H410
Hazard Codes T+,N
Risk Codes 61-26-48/23-50/53
Safety Precautions 53-45-60-61
RTECS Number OV4550000
Transport Information UN 2809 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Environment-Hazardous to the aquatic environment Health Hazard Skull and Crossbones-Acute Toxicity   

Mercury Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms
Organometallic Compounds   •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Recent Research & Development for Mercury

  • Mateusz Wyrzykowski, René Kiesewetter, Josef Kaufmann, Robert Baumann, Pietro Lura, Pore structure of mortars with cellulose ether additions – Mercury intrusion porosimetry study, Cement and Concrete Composites, Volume 53, October 2014
  • José M. López-de-Luzuriaga, Miguel Monge, M. Elena Olmos, David Pascual, Analysis of fluorescence quenching of naphthalene by two mercury containing organometallic complexes, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • YoungJae Kim, Young Jae Lee, Characterization of mercury sorption on hydroxylapatite: Batch studies and microscopic evidence for adsorption, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 430, 15 September 2014
  • Jiangkun Xie, Haomiao Xu, Zan Qu, Wenjun Huang, Wanmiao Chen, Yongpeng Ma, Songjian Zhao, Ping Liu, Naiqiang Yan, Sn–Mn binary metal oxides as non-carbon sorbent for mercury removal in a wide-temperature window, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 428, 15 August 2014
  • Debdeep Maity, Anshu Kumar, Ravi Gunupuru, Parimal Paul, Colorimetric detection of mercury(II) in aqueous media with high selectivity using calixarene functionalized gold nanoparticles, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Volume 455, 5 August 2014
  • Ye Won Choi, Ga Rim You, Myoung Mi Lee, Jinheung Kim, Kwang-Deog Jung, Cheal Kim, Highly selective recognition of mercury ions through the “naked-eye”, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 46, August 2014
  • Norasikin Saman, Khairiraihanna Johari, Hanapi Mat, Synthesis and characterization of sulfur-functionalized silica materials towards developing adsorbents for mercury removal from aqueous solutions, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 194, August 2014
  • Buhari Bafarawa, Artjom Nepryahin, Lu Ji, Elizabeth M. Holt, Jiawei Wang, Sean P. Rigby, Combining mercury thermoporometry with integrated gas sorption and mercury porosimetry to improve accuracy of pore-size distributions for disordered solids, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 426, 15 July 2014
  • Takashi Naoe, Makoto Teshigawara, Takashi Wakui, Hidetaka Kinoshita, Hiroyuki Kogawa, Katsuhiro Haga, Masatoshi Futakawa, Damage inspection of the first mercury target vessel of JSNS, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 450, Issues 1–3, July 2014
  • B.W. Riemer, M.W. Wendel, D.K. Felde, R.L. Sangrey, A. Abdou, D.L. West, T.J. Shea, S. Hasegawa, H. Kogawa, T. Naoe, C.H. Farny, A.L. Kaminsky, Small gas bubble experiment for mitigation of cavitation damage and pressure waves in short-pulse mercury spallation targets, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 450, Issues 1–3, July 2014

Mercury Isotopes

Mercury has seven stable isotopes:

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
196Hg 195.965833 Observationally Stable 0+
198Hg 197.9667690 Observationally Stable 0+
199Hg 198.9682799 Observationally Stable 1/2-
200Hg 199.9683260 Observationally Stable 0+
201Hg 200.9703023 Observationally Stable 3/2-
202Hg 201.9706430 Observationally Stable 0+
204Hg 203.9734939 Observationally Stable 0+