|Formula||CAS No.||PubChem CID||MDL No.||EC No||IUPAC Name||Beilstein
|PROPERTIES||Compound Formula||Mol. Wt.||Appearance||Melting Point||Boiling Point||Density||Monoisotopic Mass||Charge||MSDS|
|HKO||56.11||White to yellow crystalline solid||380-406 °C||1327 °C||2.04 g/cm3||55.966446||55.966446||0||Safety Data Sheet|
Potassium Hydroxide is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. Hydroxide, the OH- anion composed of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, is commonly present in nature and is one of the most widely studied molecules in physical chemistry. Hydroxide compounds have diverse properties and uses, from base catalysis to detection of carbon dioxide. In a watershed 2013 experiment, scientists at JILA (the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) achieved evaporative cooling of compounds for the first time using hydroxide molecules, a discovery that may lead to new methods of controlling chemical reactions and could impact a range of disciplines, including atmospheric science and energy production technologies. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia)and follows applicable ASTM testing standards.Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.
Potassium (atomic symbol: K, atomic number: 19) is a Block S, Group 1, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 39.0983. The number of electrons in each of Potassium's shells is [2, 8, 8, 1] and its electron configuration is [Ar] 4s1. The potassium atom has a radius of 227.2 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 275 pm. Potassium was discovered and first isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807. Potassium is the seventh most abundant element on earth. It is one of the most reactive and electropositive of all metals and rapidly oxidizes. As with other alkali metals, potassium decomposes in water with the evolution of hydrogen; because of its reacts violently with water, it only occurs in nature in ionic salts. In its elemental form, potassium has a silvery gray metallic appearance, but its compounds (such as potassium hydroxide) are more frequently used in industrial and chemical applications. The origin of the element's name comes from the English word 'potash,' meaning pot ashes, and the Arabic word 'qali,' which means alkali. The symbol K originates from the Latin word 'kalium'. For more information on potassium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of potassium products, visit the Potassium Information Center.
HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
UN 1813 8/PG 2
|POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE SYNONYMS|
|Caustic potash, Potash lye, Potassium hydrate|
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Potassium
- Relationships between the leaf and fruit mineral compositions of Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward according to nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Santoni F, Paolini J, Barboni T, Costa J. Food Chem. 2014 Mar 15
- Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage. Choi YM, Jung KC, Jo HM, Nam KW, Choe JH, Rhee MS, Kim BC. Meat Sci. 2014 Jan
- Growth, structure and spectral studies of a novel mixed crystal potassium zinc manganese sulphate. Vijila Manonmoni J, Bhagavannarayana G, Ramasamy G, Meenakshisundaram S, Amutha M. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan
- The effect of counter-ions on the ion selectivity of potassium and sodium ions in nanopores. Tang D, Kim D. Biomed Mater Eng. 2014
- Calcium and potassium content in beef: Influences on tenderness and associations with molecular markers in Nellore cattle. Tizioto PC, Gromboni CF, de Araujo Nogueira AR, de Souza MM, de Alvarenga Mudadu M, Tholon P, Rosa Ado N, Tullio RR, Medeiros SR, Nassu RT, de Almeida Regitano LC. Meat Sci. 2014 Jan.
- A Systematic Review of the Uterine Relaxant Effect of Potassium Channel Openers. Hantooshzadeh S, Rezaeizadeh G, Nikfar S, Ghiasi S, Abdollahi M. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2013 Dec
- Effect of raw material ratios on the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics. Wang AJ, Yuan ZL, Zhang J, Liu LT, Li JM, Liu Z. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 Dec 1.
- Combined effects of potassium sorbate, hot water and thiabendazole against green mould of citrus fruit and residue levels. D'Aquino S, Fadda A, Barberis A, Palma A, Angioni A, Schirra M. Food Chem. 2013 Nov 15.
- Aptamer biosensor for label-free impedance spectroscopy detection of potassium ion based on DNA G-quadruplex conformation. Chen Z, Chen L, Ma H, Zhou T, Li X. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 Oct 15.
- Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via activation of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and reduction of oxidative stress. Jiang X, Huang Y, Lin W, Gao D, Fei Z. J Surg Res. 2013 Oct
- Influence of metakaolin purities on potassium geopolymer formulation: The existence of several networks. Autef A, Joussein E, Poulesquen A, Gasgnier G, Pronier S, Sobrados I, Sanz J, Rossignol S. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Oct 15.
- Gain control of synaptic response function in cerebellar nuclear neurons by a calcium-activated potassium conductance. Feng SS, Lin R, Gauck V, Jaeger D. Cerebellum. 2013 Oct.
- Formulation and evaluation of non-effervescent floating tablets of losartan potassium. Getyala A, Gangadharappa HV, Prasad MS, Reddy MP, Kumar TM. Curr Drug Deliv. 2013 Oct.
- SDF-1a and LPA modulate microglia potassium channels through rho gtpases to regulate cell morphology. Muessel MJ, Harry GJ, Armstrong DL, Storey NM. Glia. 2013 Oct.
- Potassium Channel Openers Increase Aortic Elastic Fiber Formation and Reverse the Genetically Determined Elastin Deficit in the BN Rat. Slove S, Lannoy M, Behmoaras J, Pezet M, Sloboda N, Lacolley P, Escoubet B, Buján J, Jacob MP. Hypertension. 2013 Oct.
- Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate. Zhang GN, Ouyang JM, Xue JF, Shang YF. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 Oct
- Paradoxical Activation of an Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Mutant by Spermine: "(B)locking" Open the Bundle Crossing Gate. Vilin YY, Nunez JJ, Kim RY, Dake GR, Kurata HT. Mol Pharmacol. 2013 Oct
- Effect of mosapride on Kv4.3 potassium channels expressed in CHO cells. Sung KW, Hahn SJ. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2013 Oct
- A computational study of barium blockades in the KcsA potassium channel based on multi-ion potential of mean force calculations and free energy perturbation. Rowley CN, Roux B. J Gen Physiol. 2013 Sep 16.
- Adenosine A2A receptors inhibit delayed rectifier potassium currents and cell differentiation in primary purified oligodendrocyte cultures. Coppi E, Cellai L, Maraula G, Pugliese AM, Pedata F. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Oct.
- Scorpion venoms, kidney and potassium. Angsanakul J, Sitprija V. Toxicon. 2013 Oct
- Oxidative Modulation of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels. Heinemann SH, Sahoo N, Hoshi T. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Sep 16.
- Subcellular potassium and sodium distribution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type and vacuolar mutants. Herrera R, Alvarez MC, Gelis S, Ramos J. Biochem J. 2013 Sep 15
Recent Research & Development for Hydroxides
- Accelerating the clearance of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates through autophagy induction by europium hydroxide nanorods. Biomaterials. 2014 create date:2013/10/31 | first author:Wei PF
- Vibrational spectroscopic study of the natural layered double hydroxide manasseite now defined as hydrotalcite-2H - Mg6Al2(OH)16[CO3]-4H2O. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Frost RL.
- Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of lead iodide hydroxide micro/nanostructures. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 create date:2013/06/12 | first author:Tavakoli F
- Platelet-like nickel hydroxide: Synthesis and the transferring to nickel oxide as a gas sensor. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 create date:2013/10/23 | first author:Zhu G
- Hydrothermal synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid gadolinium hydroxide nanoclusters with controlled size and morphology. Dalton Trans. 2013 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Singh V
- On-column nitrosation of amines observed in liquid chromatography impurity separations employing ammonium hydroxide and acetonitrile as mobile phase. J Chromatogr A. 2013 create date:2013/11/05 | first author:Myers DP
- The long-term effect of calcium hydroxide application on dentin fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2013 create date:2013/02/28 | first author:Batur YB
- Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopic investigation of homogeneous cation distribution in MgxZnyAl(x+y)/2-layered double hydroxide (LDH). J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Zhang J
- Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013 create date:2013/09/04 | first author:FÃ¼tterer S
- FAD C(4a)-hydroxide stabilized in a naturally fused styrene monooxygenase. FEBS Lett. 2013 create date:2013/10/26 | first author:Tischler D
- Synthesis and properties of PEGDMA-co-HEMA/layered double hydroxide microporous hybrid hydrogels via in situ solution polymerization. J Control Release. 2013 create date:2013/11/19 | first author:Wang P
- DNA-enhanced peroxidase-like activity of layered double hydroxide nanosheets and applications in H2O2 and glucose sensing. Nanoscale. 2013 create date:2013/09/26 | first author:Chen L
- Blister Packing of Copper Hydroxide and Titania Nano Particles on Graphene and its Recycling. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 create date:2013/11/22 | first author:Vadahanambi S
- Efficient noble metal-free (electro)catalysis of water and alcohol oxidations by zinc-cobalt layered double hydroxide. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 create date:2013/10/15 | first author:Zou X
- Oxazoline and Imidazoline Functionalization of a C(60) Dimer via the Reaction of C(60)HBn and Aromatic Nitriles with a Bifunctional Hydroxide. J Org Chem. 2013 create date:2013/11/06 | first author:Li ZJ
- Efficacy of self-adjusting file and passive ultrasonic irrigation on removing calcium hydroxide from root canals. Dent Mater J. 2013 create date:2013/11/19 | first author:AhmetoÄŸlu F
- Effects of calcium hydroxide and propolis intracanal medicaments on bond strength of resin-based endodontic sealer as assessed by push-out test. Dent Mater J. 2013 create date:2013/11/19 | first author:UstÃ¼n Y
- Multilayer films of layered double hydroxide/polyaniline and their ammonia sensing behavior. J Hazard Mater. 2013 create date:2013/09/10 | first author:Xu DM
- Iron(IV)hydroxide pK(a) and the role of thiolate ligation in C-H bond activation by cytochrome P450. Science. 2013 create date:2013/11/16 | first author:Yosca TH
- Simultaneous determinations of zirconium, hafnium, yttrium and lanthanides in seawater according to a co-precipitation technique onto iron-hydroxide. Talanta. 2013 create date:2013/10/24 | first author:Raso M