Lawrencium Elemental Symbol
Lawrencium



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Lawrencium Lawrencium Laurenzio Laurêncio Laurencio Lawrencium

Lawrencium Bohr ModelLawrencium is a Block D, Group 3, Period 7 element. The number of electrons in each of lawrencium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3, and its electron configuration is [Rn] 5f147s27p. The lawrencium atom has a Van der Waals radius is 246.pm. In its elemental form, lawrencium's CAS number is 22537-19-5. Lawrencium behaves differently from dipositive nobelium and more like the tripositive elements found earlier in the actinide series. Lawrencium is radioactive and therefore considered toxic. Lawrencium was discovered by Albert Ghiorso, Torbjorn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh and Robert M. Latimer at the Lawrence Berkeley Natinal Laboratory in 1961. It was named after Earnest O. Lawrence the inventor of the cyclotron particle accelerator. The symbol for Lawrencium was originally Lw; however, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) changed the symbol from Lw to Lr in August, 1997.

Lawrencium information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Lawrencium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Lr Melting Point: 1627 oC, 2960.6 oF, 1900.15 K
Atomic Number: 103 Boiling Point: N/A
Atomic Weight: 262 Density: N/A
Element Category: Actinide Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 7, d Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization N/A
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion N/A
Electrons: 103 Thermal Conductivity: N/A
Protons: 103 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 159 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f147s27p Electronegativity: N/A
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: N/A Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: 246 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 3 (predicted) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid (predicted) Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: N/A Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: N/A Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 443.8 kJ·mol−1 (estimated) Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1428.0 kJ·mol−1 (estimated) Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2219.1 kJ·mol−1 (estimated) Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 22537-19-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 28934 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 31192 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Lawrence Berkeley Nat'l Laboratory
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1961
SMILES Identifier: [Lr]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Lr Other Names: Laurenzio, Laurêncio
InChI Key: CNQCVBJFEGMYDW-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for

  • Ramirez, E. Minaya, D. Ackermann, K. Blaum, M. Block, C. Droese, Ch E. Düllmann, M. Dworschak et al. Direct mapping of nuclear shell effects in the heaviest elements. Science, Vol. 337, no. 6099, 2012
  • S. Antalic et al, Decay studies of neutron-deficient lawrencium isotopes, The European Physical Journal A, Volume 38, Issue 2, Nov 2011
  • Sato, T. K., M. Asai, Y. Kaneya, K. Tsukada, A. Toyoshima, S. Miyashita, N. Sato et al. First successful ionization of lawrencium by surface ionization process, Annual Report 2012, 2012
  • Dworschak, Michael Gerhard. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. PhD diss., Mainz University, 2009.
  • Sukhoruchkin, S. I., and Z. N. Soroko. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Lr-277 (Lawrencium), Landolt Börnstein, Vol. 1, 2009
  • Sukhoruchkin, S. I., and Z. N. Soroko. Energy levels for Lr-255 (Lawrencium-255). In Tables of Excitations of Proton-and Neutron-Rich Unstable Nuclei, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008.
  • S. Fritzsche, C. Z. Dong, F. Koike, A. Uvarov, The low-lying level structure of atomic lawrencium (Z= 103): energies and absorption rates, The European Physical Journal D, Volume 45, Issue 1, Oct 2007
  • Borschevsky, A., E. Eliav, M. J. Vilkas, Y. Ishikawa, and U. Kaldor. Transition energies of atomic lawrencium. The European Physical Journal D-Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics, Vol. 45, no. 1, 2007
  • Kaldor, Uzi. Toward the spectroscopy of nobelium and lawrencium, the heaviest actinides. THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 234, 2007
  • Fritzsche, S., C. Z. Dong, G. Gaigalas, and M. Sewtz. Low-lying level structure of atomic nobelium and lawrencium: A challenge for abinitio theory. 2007
  • Silva, Robert J. Fermium, Mendelevium, Nobelium, and Lawrencium. In The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements, Springer Netherlands, 2006.
  • Predicting the atomic weights of the trans-lawrencium elements: A novel application of Dobereiner's triads. Journal of chemical education, Vol. 82, no. 11, 2005
  • Zou Y, Fischer CF. Resonance transition energies and oscillator strengths in lutetium and lawrencium. Phys Rev Lett. 2002 May 6;88(18):183001. Epub 2002 Apr 19.
  • TRZASKA, Stephen M. Lawrencium. Chemical & engineering news, Vol. 81, no. 36, 2003
  • Balasubramanian, K. Potential energy surfaces of Lawrencium and Nobelium dihydrides (LrH2 and NoH2). The Journal of chemical physics, Vol. 116, no. 9, 2002
  • Taut, S., S. Hübener, A. Vahle, B. Eichler, A. Türler, D. T. Jost, H. W. Gäggeler, C. A. Laue, and K. E. Gregorich. ATTEMPT TO CHARACTERIZE ELEMENTAL LAWRENCIUM BY THERMOCHROMATOGRAPHY. Annual Report 2000 Institute of Radiochemistry, 2001
  • Jorge, F. E., E. V. R. De Castro, and A. B. F. Da Silva. A universal Gaussian basis set for atoms cerium through lawrencium generated with the generator coordinate Hartree–Fock method. Journal of computational chemistry, Vol. 18, no. 13, 1997
  • Koga, Toshikatsu, and Ajit J. Thakkar. Moments and expansion coefficients of atomic electron momentum densities: numerical Hartree-Fock calculations for hydrogen to lawrencium. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 29, no. 14, 1996


Lawrencium Isotopes


Lawrencium is an artificial element. It has no stable isotopes.