Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite (LSF)
Lanthanum Ferrite doped with Strontium Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode
La2O3 / Fe2O3 / SrO
American Elements specializes in producing Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite (LSF) for fuel cell cathode applications utilizing solid state processing to produce single phase perovskite structures with various doping levels and surface areas (SSA) for use in thin film layers. Upon firing, American Elements' Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite will partially sinter to form well-defined necks and open gas paths to permit simultaneous gas and electrical transfer. Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite has an excellent thermal expansion match with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. It is highly electronically conductive and has proven long term stability. Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite belongs to a class of "A" site and "B" site doped perovskite structures with these properties. These include Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite (LSCF), Lanthanum Calcium Manganite (LCM), Lanthanum Strontium Chromite (LSC), and Lanthanum Strontium Gallate Magnesite (LSGM). Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite is available as a powder for tape casting, air spray/thermal spray/plasma spray, extrusion and sputtering fuel cell applications and as an ink for screen printing. Strontium doping levels are available at 10% and 20% and as specified by customer. Oxygen starved compositions are available. American Elements provides guidance on firing parameters, doping levels, and thermal expansion matching with American Elements' electrolyte and interconnect fuel cell layers. Also see product data sheets for LSF-20-P and LSF-20-I.
Lanthanum (atomic symbol: La, atomic number: 57) is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element with an atomic weight of 138.90547. The number of electrons in each of lanthanum's shells is [2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2] and its electron configuration is [Xe] 5d1 6s2. The lanthanum atom has a radius of 187 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 240 pm. Lanthanum was first discovered by Carl Mosander in 1838. In its elemental form, lanthanum has a silvery white appearance. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal that oxidizes easily in air. Lanthanum is the first element in the rare earth or lanthanide series. It is the model for all the other trivalent rare earths and it is the second most abundant of the rare earths after cerium. Lanthanum is found in minerals such as monazite and bastnasite. The name lanthanum originates from the Greek word "Lanthaneia," which means 'to lie hidden'. For more information on lanthanum, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of lanthanum products, visit the Lanthanum Information Center.
Strontium (atomic symbol: Sr, atomic number: 38) is a Block S, Group 2, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 87.62 . The number of electrons in each of Strontium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 8, 2] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 5s2. The strontium atom has a radius of 215 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 249 pm. Strontium was discovered by William Cruickshank in 1787 and first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808. In its elemental form, strontium is a soft, silvery white metallic solid that quickly turns yellow when exposed to air. Cathode ray tubes in televisions are made of strontium, which are becoming increasingly displaced by other display technologies; pyrotechnics and fireworks employ strontium salts to achhieve a bright red color. Radioactive isotopes of strontium have been used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and for certain cancer treatments. In nature, most strontium is found in celestite (as strontium sulfate) and strontianite (as strontium carbonate). Strontium was named after the Scottish town where it was discovered. For more information on strontium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of strontium products, visit the Strontium Information Center.
Iron (atomic symbol: Fe, atomic number: 26) is a Block D, Group 8, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 55.845. The number of electrons in each of Iron's shells is 2, 8, 14, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d6 4s2. The iron atom has a radius of 126 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 194 pm. Iron was discovered by humans before 5000 BC. In its elemental form, iron has a lustrous grayish metallic appearance. Iron is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust and the most common element by mass forming the earth as a whole. Iron is rarely found as a free element, since it tends to oxidize easily; it is usually found in minerals such as magnetite , hematite, goethite, limonite, or siderite. Though pure iron is typically soft, the addition of carbon creates the alloy known as steel, which is significantly stronger. For more information on iron, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of iron products, visit the Iron Information Center.
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Lanthanum
- Preconcentration of some metal ions with lanthanum-8-hydroxyquinoline co-precipitation system. Feist B, Mikula B. Food Chem. 2014.
- Magnetic phase transition and clustered state in Ca-doped lanthanum cobaltite and manganite with insulator ground states. Ryzhov VA, Lazuta AV, Khavronin VP, Molkanov PL, Mukovskii YM. J Phys Condens Matter. 2014
- Combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on root growth and ion absorption in soybean seedlings. Huang GR, Wang LH, Zhou Q. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014.
- Sonochemical preparation of pure t-LaVO4 nanoparticles with the aid of tris(acetylacetonato)lanthanum hydrate as a novel precursor. Salavati-Niasari M, Saleh L, Mohandes F, Ghaemi A. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014.
- Lanthanum-containing hydroxyapatite coating on ultrafine-grained titanium by micro-arc oxidation: a promising strategy to enhance overall performance of titanium. Deng Z, Wang L, Zhang D, Liu J, Liu C, Ma J. Med Sci Monit. 2014.
- Humic substances interfere with phosphate removal by lanthanum modified clay in controlling eutrophication. Lürling M, Waajen G, van Oosterhout F. Water Res. 2014.
- [Lanthanum carbonate abdominal foreign bodies.] Pinal Fernández I, Morís Felgueroso M, Trallero Araguás E. Med Clin (Barc). 2014.
- The kinetics of uptake and recovery of lanthanum using freshwater algae as biosorbents: Comparative analysis. Birungi ZS, Chirwa EM. Bioresour Technol. 2014.
- Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium]. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014.
- Lanthanum-containing hydroxyapatite coating on ultrafine-grained titanium by micro-arc oxidation: A promising strategy to enhance overall performance of titanium. Med Sci Monit. 2014
- [Lanthanum carbonate abdominal foreign bodies.] Med Clin (Barc) 2014.
- [Evaluation of in situ capping with lanthanum-modified zeolite to control phosphate and ammonium release from sediments in heavily polluted river]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2013
- Magnetic phase transition and clustered state in Ca-doped lanthanum cobaltite and manganite with insulator ground states. J Phys Condens Matter. 2014
- Evaluation of Aortic Calcification With Lanthanum Carbonate vs. Calcium-Based Phosphate Binders in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial. Ther Apher Dial. 2014
- Lanthanum molybdate nanoparticles from the bradley reaction: factors influencing their composition, structure, and functional characteristics as potential matrixes for luminescent phosphors. Inorg Chem. 2014
- Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric assay of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice with pH adjustment and preextraction of lanthanum (III)-flavonoid complexes. J Sci Food Agric. 2014.
- A lanthanum chelate possessing an open-channel framework with water nanotubes: properties and desalination. Dalton Trans. 2014
- The role of chemical interactions between thorium, cerium, and lanthanum in lymphocyte toxicity. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2014 create date:2013/08/13 | first author:Oliveira MS
- Lanthanum carbonate prevents accelerated medial calcification in uremic rats: role of osteoclast-like activity. J Transl Med. 2013
- The real-world dose-relativity of sevelamer hydrochloride and lanthanum carbonate monotherapy in patients with end-stage renal disease. Adv Ther.
- Combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on root growth and ion absorption in soybean seedlings. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013
- Doped lanthanum nickelates with a layered perovskite structure as bifunctional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 | first author:Jung KN
- Lanthanum carbonate for the control of hyperphosphatemia in chronic renal failure patients: a new oral powder formulation - safety, efficacy, and patient adherence. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2013
- Highly active lanthanum doped ZnO nanorods for photodegradation of metasystox. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2013.
Recent Research & Development for Strontium
- The inhibitory effect of strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate particles on cytokines from macrophages and osteoblasts leading to aseptic loosening in vitro. Huang C, Li L, Yu X, Gu Z, Zhang X. Biomed Mater. 2014.
- Monitoring bone strontium intake in osteoporotic females self-supplementing with strontium citrate with a novel in-vivo X-ray fluorescence based diagnostic tool. Moise H, Chettle DR, Pejovic-Milic A. Bone. 2014.
- Controlling initial biodegradation of magnesium by a biocompatible strontium phosphate conversion coating. Chen XB, Nisbet DR, Li RW, Smith PN, Abbott TB, Easton MA, Zhang DH, Birbilis N. Acta Biomater. 2014 Mar.
- Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Si and Sr co-substituted hydroxyapatite nanowires using strontium containing calcium silicate as precursors. Zhang N, Zhai D, Chen L, Zou Z, Lin K, Chang J. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014
- Osteoblastic cell response on biphasic fluorhydroxyapatite/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings. Yin P, Feng FF, Lei T, Zhong XH, Jian XC. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014 Mar.
- Intervention timing of strontium treatment on estrogen depletion-induced osteoporosis in rats: Bone microstructure and mechanics. Peng S, Liu XS, Huang S, Pan H, Zhen W, Zhou G, Luk KD, Guo XE, Lu WW. J Orthop Res. 2014 Mar.
- Geographic determination of coffee beans using multi-element analysis and isotope ratios of boron and strontium. Food Chem. 2014 2013/09/05 | first author:Liu HC
- Precise determination of strontium isotope ratios by TIMS to authenticate tomato geographical origin. Trincherini PR, Baffi C, Barbero P, Pizzoglio E, Spalla S. Food Chem. 2014 Feb.
- Preclinical evaluation of strontium-containing bioactive bone cement. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 2013/10/08 | first author:Li Z
- Application of ICP-DRC-MS to screening test of strontium and plutonium in environmental samples at Fukushima. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013 2013/05/16 | first author:Sakama M
- Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue. Bone. 2013 2013/08/13 | first author:Pemmer B
- Baseline concentrations of strontium and (90)Sr in seawater from the northern Gulf. Mar Pollut Bull. 2013 2013/07/24 | first author:Uddin S
- Bone formation induced by strontium modified calcium phosphate cement in critical-size metaphyseal fracture defects in ovariectomized rats. Biomaterials. 2013 2013/08/03 | first author:Thormann U
- Isolation of strontium pools and isotope ratios in modern human hair. Anal Chim Acta. 2013 2013/09/28 | first author:Tipple BJ
- Strontium Localization in Bone Tissue Studied by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013 2013/10/09 | first author:Frankar CG
- Enhanced osteoporotic bone regeneration by strontium-substituted calcium silicate bioactive ceramics. Biomaterials. 2013 2013/10/08 | first author:Lin K
- Pure Hydroxyapatite Phantoms for the Calibration of in Vivo X-ray Fluorescence Systems of Bone Lead and Strontium Quantification. Anal Chem. 2013 2013/08/29 | first author:Da Silva E.
- Pulsed electrodeposition for the synthesis of strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings with improved dissolution properties. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 2013/08/06 | first author:Drevet R.
- Processing and properties of textured potassium strontium niobate (KSr(2)Nb(5)O(15)) ceramic fibers-effect of texture on the electrical properties. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2013 2013/10/02 | first author:Alkoy S
- SBN60, strontium-barium niobate at 100â€…K. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online. 2013 2013/10/08 | first author:Stachowicz MHuo L, Qian T, Hao J, Liu H, Zhao D. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess. J Radiol Prot. 2013 Sep.
Recent Research & Development for Ferrites
- Magnetic and ultrasonic studies on stable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanofluid. Nabeel Rashin M, Hemalatha J. Ultrasonics. 2014 Mar.
- High frequency AC response, DC resistivity and magnetic studies of holmium substituted Ni-ferrite: A novel electromagnetic material. E Pervaiz, IH Gul - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 2014 - Elsevier
- Thermo-magnetic properties of ternary polydispersed Mn 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite magnetic fluid - K Parekh - Solid State Communications, 2014
- Thermal Expansion of Alkaline-Doped Lanthanum Ferrite Near the Néel Temperature. GL Beausoleil, P Price, D Thomsen… - Journal of the…, 2014 - Wiley Online Library
- Effect of barium ferrite particle size on detachment efficiency in magnetophoretic harvesting of oleaginous Chlorella sp. Seo JY, Lee K, Lee SY, Jeon SG, Na JG, Oh YK, Park SB. Bioresour Technol. 2014 Jan.
- Dielectric properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in ultrathin nanocomposite films. Alcantara GB, Paterno LG, Fonseca FJ, Pereira-da-Silva MA, Morais PC, Soler MA. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Dec.
- Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate. Chen X, Jiang Y, Jiao C. J Hazard Mater. 2013 Dec.
- Generalized green synthesis and formation mechanism of sponge-like ferrite micro-polyhedra with tunable structure and composition. Tong G, Du F, Xiang L, Liu F, Mao L, Guan J. Nanoscale. 2013 Dec.
- Growth and crystallographic feature-dependent characterization of spinel zinc ferrite thin films by RF sputtering. Liang YC, Hsia HY. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013 Dec.
- Synthesis, microstructure, and magnetic properties of monosized MnxZnyFe3 - x - yO4 ferrite nanocrystals. Yoon H, Lee JS, Min JH, Wu J, Kim YK. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013.
- Preparation of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles by ultrasonic wave-assisted aqueous solution ball milling. Chen D, Li DY, Zhang YZ, Kang ZT. Ultrason Sonochem. 2013 Nov
- Magnetic nanocomposite based on titania-silica/cobalt ferrite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye - FA Harraz, RM Mohamed, MM Rashad, YC Wang… - Ceramics, 2013 - Elsevier.
- Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis. Mahmoodi NM, Soltani-Gordefaramarzi S, Sadeghi-Kiakhani M. Environ Monit Assess. 2013 Dec.
- Nanocolumnar Interfaces and Enhanced Magnetic Coercivity in Preferentially oriented Cobalt Ferrite Thin Films Grown Using Oblique-Angle Pulsed Laser Deposition. Mukherjee D, Hordagoda M, Hyde R, Bingham N, Srikanth H, Witanachchi S, Mukherjee P. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Aug 14
- Atom probe study of vanadium interphase precipitates and randomly distributed vanadium precipitates in ferrite. Nöhrer M, Zamberger S, Primig S, Leitner H. Micron. 2013 Nov-Dec.
- Efficient degradation of atrazine by magnetic porous copper ferrite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation via the formation of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals. Guan YH, Ma J, Ren YM, Liu YL, Xiao JY, Lin LQ, Zhang C. Water Res. 2013 Sep.
- Efficient degradation of atrazine by magnetic porous copper ferrite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation via the formation of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals. Guan YH, Ma J, Ren YM, Liu YL, Xiao JY, Lin LQ, Zhang C. Water Res. 2013 Jun.
- Magnetic nanocomposite based on titania-silica/cobalt ferrite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye FA Harraz, RM Mohamed, MM Rashad, YC Wang… - Ceramics …, 2013 - Elsevier Abstract Magnetic photocatalysts were successfully prepared by coating titania-silica (TiO 2-SiO 2) on cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4) nanoparticles.
- Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis. Mahmoodi NM, Soltani-Gordefaramarzi S, Sadeghi-Kiakhani M. Environ Monit Assess. 2013 Jul.
- Synthesis and neuro-cytocompatibility of magnetic Zn-ferrite nanorods via peptide-assisted process. Zou Y, Huang Z, Deng M, Yin G, Chen X, Liu J, Wang Y, Yan L, Gu J. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013.