American Elements specializes in producing lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF) for fuel cell cathode applications utilizing solid state processing to produce single phase perovskite structures with various doping levels and surface areas (SSA) for use in thin film layers. Upon firing, American Elements' Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite will partially sinter to form well-defined necks and open gas paths to permit simultaneous gas and electrical transfer. Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite has an excellent thermal expansion match with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. It is highly electronically conductive and has proven long term stability. Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite belongs to a class of "A" site and "B" site doped perovskite structures with these properties. These include Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite (LSCF), Lanthanum Calcium Manganite (LCM), Lanthanum Strontium Chromite (LSC), and Lanthanum Strontium Gallate Magnesite (LSGM). Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite is available as a powder for tape casting, air spray/thermal spray/plasma spray, extrusion and sputtering fuel cell applications and as an ink for screen printing. Strontium doping levels are available at 10% and 20% and as specified by customer. Oxygen starved compositions are available. American Elements provides guidance on firing parameters, doping levels, and thermal expansion matching with American Elements' electrolyte and interconnect fuel cell layers. Also see product data sheets for LSF-20-P and LSF-20-I.
Lanthanum is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Lanthanum's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 5d1 6s2. In its elemental form lanthanum 's CAS number is 7439-91-0. The lanthanum atom has a radius of 187.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Lanthanum and compounds of Lanthanum are somewhat toxic. Lanthanum is one of the products manufactured and distributed under the tradename AE Rare Earths. Lanthanum is the first element in the rare earth or lanthanide series. It is the model for all the other trivalent rare earths. After cerium, it is the second most abundant of the rare earths. Lanthanum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.Lanthanum-rich lanthanide compositions have been used extensively for cracking reactions in FCC catalysts, especially to manufacture low-octane fuel for heavy crude oil. Lantahanum is found in monazite and bastnasite. The name Lanthanum originates from the Greek word Lanthaneia which means 'To lie hidden'. See Lanthanum research below.
Strontium is a Block S, Group 2, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Strontium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 5s2. In its elemental form strontium's CAS number is 7440-24-6. The strontium atom has a radius of 215.1.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. The non-radioactive isotopes of Strontium are not toxic. Strontium has low tech applications as an additive to flares and pyrotechnics because of the bright crimson flame produced by its salts. Strontium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. It also has many high technology applications because of its high refractive index as a titanate in glass, as a "getter" in electron tubes and as a dopant for numerous perovskite formulations to produce cathodes for oxygen generation or solid oxide fuel cells. Historically the primary use of strontium was to produce CRT glass for color television and computer tubes. Strontium, first discovered by A. Crawford in 1790, is found in celestite and strontianite ores. Strontium was named after the Scottish town it was discovered in, Strontian. See Strontium research below.
Iron is a Block D, Group 8, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Iron's shells is 2, 8, 14, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d6 4s2. In its elemental form iron's CAS number is 7439-89-6. The iron atom has a radius of 124.1.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Iron is not toxic. Iron is the most commonly used metal for commercial applications due to its hardness, historical availability and low cost. Once used on its own, it is now alloyed with nickel and other elements to produce steel and other high strength, non-corrosive structural metals. Iron as a metal and as its many compounds has numerous uses. It is a primary colorant in glass and ceramics. It is a catalyst. It is the basis for low grade magnets and because of its magnetic properties is used extensively in memory tape. Recent applications for Iron nanoparticles include in water treatment of carbon tetrachloride in contaminated groundwater, magnetic data storage and resonance imaging (MRI) and in certain alloy and catalyst applications. Iron can also be introduced into processes using iron foil, pellets, rod and wire by thin film Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Organometallic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) for specific applications such as fuel cells and solar energy. Iron is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Iron is found in the minerals hematite and magnetite. Iron was first discovered by Early Man. See Iron research below.
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.
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effect of lanthanum calcium manganate (La0.67Ca0.33MnO3) nanoparticles against
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