Sodium Hydroxide, Anhydrous
|Formula||CAS No.||PubChem SID||PubChem CID||MDL No.||EC No||IUPAC Name||Beilstein
|PROPERTIES||Compound Formula||Mol. Wt.||Appearance||Melting Point||Boiling Point||Density||Monoisotopic Mass||Charge||MSDS|
|HNaO||40.00||White, othogonal crystals||318° C
|2.13 g/cm³||N/A||39.992512||N/A||Safety Data Sheet|
Sodium Hydroxide, Anhydrous is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. Hydroxide, the OH- anion composed of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, is commonly present in nature and is one of the most widely studied molecules in physical chemistry. Hydroxide compounds have diverse properties and uses, from base catalysis to detection of carbon dioxide. In a watershed 2013 experiment, scientists at JILA (the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) achieved evaporative cooling of compounds for the first time using hydroxide molecules, a discovery that may lead to new methods of controlling chemical reactions and could impact a range of disciplines, including atmospheric science and energy production technologies. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.
Sodium is a Block S, Group 1, Period 3 element. The number of electrons in each of Sodium's shells is 2, 8, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Ne] 3s1. In its elemental form sodium's CAS number is 7440-23-5. The sodium atom has a radius of 185.8.pm and its Van der Waalsradius is 227.pm. Sodium is not toxic but skin contact may cause irritation and burns. Sodium is primarily used in its metallic form in the production of chemical esters and in the manufacturing of various other organic compounds. The metal is used in the alloy of tin, nickel and copper for its structural characteristics. Sodium is availableas metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. High purity sodium compounds are used as reducing agents. Sodium compounds are used in low tech applications throughout industry. Sodium, first discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807, is the sixth most abundant element making up 2.6 % of the earths crust. The name Sodium comes from the Latin word "natrium" which means sodium carbonate. See Sodium research below.
|HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION|
|Material Safety Data Sheet||MSDS|
|Transport Information||UN 1823 8/PG 2|
|Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
|SODIUM HYDROXIDE SYNONYMS|
|Caustic soda; Soda lye; Aetznatron; Sodium hydrate|
CUSTOMERS FOR SODIUM HYDROXIDE, ANHYDROUS HAVE ALSO LOOKED AT
|Sodium Fluoride||Sodium Chloride||Sodium Oxide Sputtering Target||Sodium Sulfate||Sodium Oxide Powder|
|Sodium Nitrate||Sodium Acetate||Sodium 2 - Ethylhexanoate||Sodium Tungstate||Sodium Oxide|
|Sodium Oxide Nanopowder||Sodium Oxide Pellets||Sodium Cubes||Gold(I) Sodium Cyanide||Sodium Benzoate|
|Show Me MORE Forms of Sodium|
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Sodium
- Repeated supra-maximal sprint cycling with and without sodium bicarbonate supplementation induces endothelial microparticle release. Kirk RJ, Peart DJ, Madden LA, Vince RV. EJSS (Champaign). 2013 May 17.
- Discovery of a highly potent, nonabsorbable apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter inhibitor (GSK2330672) for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Wu Y, Aquino CJ, Cowan DJ, Anderson DL, Ambroso JL, Bishop MJ, Boros EE, Chen L, Cunningham A, Dobbins RL, Feldman PL, Harston LT, Kaldor IW, Klein R, Liang X, McIntyre MS, Merrill CL, Patterson KM, Prescott JS, Ray JS, Roller SG, Yao X, Young A, Yuen J, Collins JL. J Med Chem. 2013 May 16.
- NMR Relaxometry Study of the Interaction of Water with a Nafion Membrane under Acid, Sodium, and Potassium Forms. Evidence of Two Types of Bound Water. Xu F, Leclerc S, Canet D. J Phys Chem B. 2013 May 16.
- Molecular determinants restricting mouse sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide for viral entry of Hepatitis B and D virus. Yan H, Peng B, He W, Zhong G, Qi Y, Ren B, Gao Z, Jing Z, Song M, Xu G, Sui J, Li W. J Virol. 2013 May 15.
- NHE1 Is the Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger Active in Acute Intracellular pH Regulation in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos. Siyanov V, Baltz JM. Biol Reprod. 2013 May 15.
- Dual Reporter Gene Imaging for Tracking Macrophage Migration Using the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter and an Enhanced Firefly Luciferase in a Murine Inflammation Model. Lee HW, Jeon YH, Hwang MH, Kim JE, Park TI, Ha JH, Lee SW, Ahn BC, Lee J. Mol Imaging Biol. 2013 May 16.
- Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008. Grimes CA, Wright JD, Liu K, Nowson CA, Loria CM. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 15.
- The dye or humic acid water treatment and membrane fouling by polyaluminum chloride composited with sodium alginate in coagulation-ultrafiltration process. Wang Y, Zhang F, Chu Y, Gao B, Yue Q. Water Sci Technol. 2013 May;67(10):2202-9. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.106.
- Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration of copper ions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and its mixture with Brij 35, Tween 80 and Triton X-100. Zhao B, Li R, Zhong J, Zhang L. Water Sci Technol. 2013 May;67(10):2154-9. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.126.
- Sodium alginate microneedle arrays mediate the transdermal delivery of bovine serum albumin. Demir YK, Akan Z, Kerimoglu O. PLoS One. 2013 May 10;8(5):e63819. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063819.
- Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Casual Urinary Sodium Concentrations in Western Populations: The INTERSALT Study. Brown IJ, Dyer AR, Chan Q, Cogswell ME, Ueshima H, Stamler J, Elliott P; on behalf of the INTERSALT Co-Operative Research Group. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 May 14.
- Elliott et al. Respond to "Quantifying Urine Sodium Excretion" Elliott P, Brown IJ, Dyer AR, Chan Q, Ueshima H, Stamler J; on behalf of the INTERSALT Co-Operative Research Group. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 May 14.
- Role of Sodium in the RprY-Dependent Stress Response in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Krishnan K, Duncan MJ. PLoS One. 2013 May 6;8(5):e63180. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063180.
- Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Devineni D, Curtin CR, Polidori D, Gutierrez MJ, Murphy J, Rusch S, Rothenberg PL. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jun;53(6):601-10. doi: 10.1002/jcph.88.
- Study on molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells transfected with baculovirus-mediated sodium/iodine symporter gene. Wang J, Liu S, Wang J, Zhang Y, Li B, Cai C, Wang S. Int J Oncol. 2013 May 13. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.1936.
- Preparation and characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate doped polypyrrole solid phase micro extraction fiber and its application to endocrine disruptor pesticide analysis. Korba K, Pelit L, Pelit FO, Ozdokur KV, Ertas H, Eroglu AE, Ertas FN. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Apr 20;929C:90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.04.023.
- The ergogenic effect of beta-alanine combined with sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity swimming performance. de Salles Painelli V, Roschel H, de Jesus F, Sale C, Harris RC, Solis MY, Benatti FB, Gualano B, Lancha AH Jr, Artioli GG. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013 May;38(5):525-32. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0286.
- First human dose-escalation study with remogliflozin etabonate, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), in healthy subjects and in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kapur A, O Connor-Semmes R, Hussey EK, Dobbins RL, Tao W, Hompesch M, Smith GA, Polli JW, James Jr CD, Mikoshiba I, Nunez DJ. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013 May 13;14(1):26.
- Alendronate sodium. Ananchenko G, Novakovic J, Tikhomirova A. Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol. 2013;38:1-33. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407691-4.00001-0.
- [Determination of trace chloride in sodium sulfate of analytical reagent-grade by valve-switching ion chromatography]. Zhang T, Wang N, Ye M, Hu Z, Pan G. Se Pu. 2013 Jan;31(1):88-91.
Recent Research & Development for Hydroxides
- Theiss FL, Ayoko GA, Frost RL. Removal of boron species by layered double hydroxides: A review. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Apr 8. doi:pii: S0021-9797(13)00309-3. 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.03.051.
- Coronado E, Martí-Gastaldo C, Navarro-Moratalla E, Ribera A, Tatay S. Illustrating the Processability of Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Magnetic Ultrathin Films. Inorg Chem. 2013 Apr 26.
- Truscott BJ, Nelson DJ, Lujan C, Slawin AM, Nolan SP. Iridium(I)-Hydroxides: Powerful Synthons for Bond Activation. Chemistry. 2013 Apr 24. doi: 10.1002/chem.201300669.
- Chen C, Huang C, Waluyo I, Nordlund D, Weng TC, Sokaras D, Weiss T, Bergmann U, Pettersson LG, Nilsson A. Solvation structures of protons and hydroxide ions in water. J Chem Phys. 2013 Apr 21;138(15):154506. doi: 10.1063/1.4801512.
- Othman MA, Zahid WM, Abasaeed AE. Selectivity of layered double hydroxides and their derivative mixed metal oxides as sorbents of hydrogen sulfide. J Hazard Mater. 2013 Mar 22;254-255C:221-227. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.03.030.
- Barbin LE, Estrela C, Guedes DF, Spanó JC, Sousa-Neto MD, Pécora JD. Detection of Para-Chloroaniline, Reactive Oxygen Species, and 1-Chloro-4-Nitrobenzene in High Concentrations of Chlorhexidine and in a Mixture of Chlorhexidine and Calcium Hydroxide. J Endod. 2013 May;39(5):664-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.10.018.
- Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein-Al-Ali SH, Arulselvan P, Fakurazi S. Sustained release formulation of an anti-tuberculosis drug based on para-amino salicylic acid-zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposite. Chem Cent J. 2013 Apr 20;7(1):72.
- Davarani SS, Masoomi L, Banitaba MH, Zhad HR, Sadeghi O, Samiei A. Determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine in cosmetic products by headspace solid phase microextraction using a novel aluminum hydroxide grafted fused silica fiber followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Talanta. 2013 Feb 15;105:347-53. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2012.10.053.
- Ko CY, Huang JH, Raina S, Kang WP. A high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on nickel hydroxide modified nitrogen-incorporated nanodiamonds. Analyst. 2013 Apr 16.
- Huang J, Gou G, Xue B, Yan Q, Sun Y, Dong LE. Preparation and characterization of "dextran-magnetic layered double hydroxide-fluorouracil" targeted liposomes. Int J Pharm. 2013 Apr 13. doi:pii: S0378-5173(13)00302-5. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.04.010.
- Gomes AC, Bruno SM, Gamelas CA, Valente AA, Abrantes M, Gonçalves IS, Romão CC, Pillinger M. Intercalation of a molybdenum ?(3)-allyl dicarbonyl complex in a layered double hydroxide and catalytic performance in olefin epoxidation. Dalton Trans. 2013 Apr 16.
- Yasei M, Zamanian A, Moztarzadeh F, Ghaffari M, Mozafari M. Characteristics improvement of calcium hydroxide dental cement by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Part 1: Formulation and microstructure. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2013 Apr 15. doi: 10.1002/bab.1119.
- Rives V, Del Arco M, Martín C. Layered double hydroxides as drug carriers and for controlled release of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): A review. J Control Release. 2013 Apr 11;169(1-2):28-39. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.03.034.
- Montresor LC, Miranda-Filho KC, Paglia A, Luz DM, Araújo JM, Silva MJ, Gerhard L, Martinez CB, Vidigal TH. Short-term toxicity of ammonia, sodium Hydroxide and a commercial biocide to golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013 Jun;92:150-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.03.016.
- Wu X, Tan X, Yang S, Wen T, Guo H, Wang X, Xu A. Coexistence of adsorption and coagulation processes of both arsenate and NOM from contaminated groundwater by nanocrystallined Mg/Al layered double hydroxides. Water Res. 2013 Mar 27. doi:pii: S0043-1354(13)00178-4. 10.1016/j.watres.2012.11.056.
- Cheng X, Wang Y, Sun Z, Sun D, Wang A. Pathways of phosphate uptake from aqueous solution by ZnAl layered double hydroxides. Water Sci Technol. 2013;67(8):1757-63. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.049.
- Zhang Y, Cui B, Zhao C, Lin H, Li J. Co-Ni layered double hydroxides for water oxidation in neutral electrolyte. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Apr 24;15(19):7363-9. doi: 10.1039/c3cp50202c.
- Vinay TN, Park CS, Kim HY, Jung SJ. Toxicity and dose determination of quillaja saponin, aluminum hydroxide and squalene in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 22. doi:pii: S0165-2427(13)00112-8. 10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.03.007.
- Radha S, Kamath PV. Polytypism in Sulfate-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides of Zn and M(III) (M = Al, Cr): Observation of Cation Ordering in the Metal Hydroxide Layers. Inorg Chem. 2013 May 6;52(9):4834-41. doi: 10.1021/ic3023198.
- Choi TH, Liang R, Maupin CM, Voth GA. Application of the SCC-DFTB Method to Hydroxide Water Clusters and Aqueous Hydroxide Solutions. J Phys Chem B. 2013 May 2;117(17):5165-79. doi: 10.1021/jp400953a.
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