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About Promethium

Promethium Bohr

All of promethium’s isotopes are radioactive and have short half-lives, so appreciable amounts are not found in natural sources. The existence of an unknown element with atomic number 61 was predicted in 1914 by Henry Mosley, but the metal was not successfully produced and fully characterized until 1945. This was accomplished by Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, and Charles D. Coryell at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by separating and analyzing fission products of uranium. The name was derived from the Titan in Greek mythology who stole fire from Mount Olympus to give to humans, Prometheus. Since the element can only be obtained from a lab, it has few applications. The only isotope of promethium used outside of research is promethium-147, which is produced and used in very small (milligram) quantities in atomic batteries and signal lights containing phosphors that emit light in response to absorption of radiation emitted by the isotope. Since this relatively stable isotope emits x-rays, it could theoretically be used for portable x-ray sources.

Promethium Properties

Promethium Bohr ModelPromethium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Promethium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f5 6s2. The promethium atom has a radius of 183.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 236.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-12-2, promethium has a metalic appearance. Promethium was discovered by Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, and Hans Bethe in 1942. It was first isolated by J. A. Marinsky, Lawrence Glendenin and Charles D. Coryell in 1945. The element name comes from Greek mythology after the titan, Prometheus, who stole the fire of Zeus and gave it to mankind.

Promethium is radioactive. Promethium information, including technical data, properties, and other useful facts are specified below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity, and thermal properties are included.

Symbol: Pm
Atomic Number: 61
Atomic Weight: 145
Element Category: Lanthanide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f
Color: silvery-white/ metallic
Other Names: Prometio, Promécio
Melting Point: 1042°C, 1907.6°F, 1315.15 K
Boiling Point: 3000°C, 5432°F, 3273.15 K
Density: 7.26 g·cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Density @ 20°C: 7.220 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 7264 kg·m3
Specific Heat: N/A
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): about 7.7
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 290
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): about 350
Thermal Conductivity: 17.9 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) ( poly) est. 11 µm/(m·K)
Electrical Resistivity: (r.t.) est. 0.75 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Young's Modulus: (form) est. 46 GPa
Shear Modulus: ( form) est. 18 GPa
Bulk Modulus: ( form) est. 33 GPa
Poisson Ratio: ( form) est. 0.28
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: N/A
Pauling Electronegativity: N/A
Sanderson Electronegativity: N/A
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.07
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: N/A
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 61
Protons: 61
Neutrons: 84
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f5 6s2
Atomic Radius: 183 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
2.38
Covalent Radius: 199 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.86
Van der Waals Radius: 236 pm
Oxidation States: 3 (mildly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Unknown
1st Ionization Energy: 538.39 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1051.70 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2151.64 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-12-2
EC Number: N/A
MDL Number: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Pm]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pm
InChI Key: VQMWBBYLQSCNPO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
PubChem CID: 23944
ChemSpider ID: 22386
Earth - Total: N/A
Mercury - Total: N/A
Venus - Total: N/A
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: N/A
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: N/A
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: N/A
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: N/A
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: N/A
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: N/A
Stream, ppb by weight: N/A
Stream, ppb by atoms: N/A
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: N/A
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: N/A
Universe, ppb by atom: N/A
Discovered By: Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe
Discovery Date: 1942
First Isolation: Charles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, Harold G. Richter (1945)

Promethium Isotopes

Promethium (Pm) does not exist in nature (except in trace quantities from spontaneous fission and alpha decay of 151Eu). It has no stable isotopes.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
126Pm 125.95752(54)# 0.5# s Unknown N/A N/A 996.05 -
127Pm 126.95163(64)# 1# s Unknown 5/2+# N/A 1004.13 -
128Pm 127.94842(43)# 1.0(3) s β+ to 128Nd; p to 127Nd 6+# N/A 1021.53 -
129Pm 128.94316(43)# 3# s [>200 ns] β+ to 129Nd 5/2+# N/A 1029.61 -
130Pm 129.94045(32)# 2.6(2) s β+ to 130Nd; β+ + p to 129Pr (5+,6+,4+) N/A 1037.68 -
131Pm 130.93587(21)# 6.3(8) s β+ + p to 130Pr; β+ to 131Nd 5/2+# N/A 1055.08 -
132Pm 131.93375(21)# 6.2(6) s β+ to 132Nd; β+ + p to 131Pr (3+) N/A 1063.16 -
133Pm 132.92978(5) 15(3) s β+ to 133Nd (3/2+) N/A 1080.55 -
134Pm 133.92835(6) 22(1) s β+ to 134Nd (5+) N/A 1088.63 -
135Pm 134.92488(6) 49(3) s β+ to 135Nd (5/2+,3/2+) N/A 1096.71 -
136Pm 135.92357(8) 107(6) s β+ to 136Nd (5-) N/A 1104.79 -
137Pm 136.920479(14) 2# min β+ to 137Nd 5/2+# N/A 1112.87 -
138Pm 137.919548(30) 10(2) s β+ to 138Nd 1+# N/A 1130.26 -
139Pm 138.916804(14) 4.15(5) min β+ to 139Nd (5/2)+ N/A 1138.34 -
140Pm 139.91604(4) 9.2(2) s β+ to 140Nd 1+ N/A 1146.42 -
141Pm 140.913555(15) 20.90(5) min β+ to 141Nd 5/2+ N/A 1154.5 -
142Pm 141.912874(27) 40.5(5) s β+ to 142Nd 1+ N/A 1162.58 -
143Pm 142.910933(4) 265(7) d EC to 143Nd 5/2+ 3.8 1170.66 -
144Pm 143.912591(3) 363(14) d EC to 144Nd 5- 1.7 1178.73 -
145Pm 144.912749(3) 17.7(4) y EC to 145Nd; α to 141Pr 5/2+ N/A 1186.81 -
146Pm 145.914696(5) 5.53(5) y EC to 146Nd; β- to 146Sm 3- N/A 1194.89 -
147Pm 146.9151385(26) 2.6234(2) y β- to 147Sm 7/2+ 2.6 1202.97 -
148Pm 147.917475(7) 5.368(2) d β- to 148Sm 1- 2 1211.05 -
149Pm 148.918334(4) 53.08(5) h β- to 149Sm 7/2+ 3.3 1219.13 -
150Pm 149.920984(22) 2.68(2) h β- to 150Sm (1-) N/A 1217.89 -
151Pm 150.921207(6) 28.40(4) h β- to 151Sm 5/2+ 1.8 1225.97 -
152Pm 151.923497(28) 4.12(8) min β- to 152Sm 1+ N/A 1234.05 -
153Pm 152.924117(12) 5.25(2) min β- to 153Sm 5/2- N/A 1242.13 -
154Pm 153.92646(5) 1.73(10) min β- to 154Sm (0,1) N/A 1250.21 -
155Pm 154.92810(3) 41.5(2) s β- to 155Sm (5/2-) N/A 1258.28 -
156Pm 155.93106(4) 26.70(10) s β- to 156Sm 4- N/A 1257.05 -
157Pm 156.93304(12) 10.56(10) s β- to 157Sm (5/2-) N/A 1265.13 -
158Pm 157.93656(14) 4.8(5) s β- to 158Sm N/A N/A 1273.2 -
159Pm 158.93897(21)# 1.47(15) s β- to 159Sm 5/2-# N/A 1281.28 -
160Pm 159.94299(32)# 2# s β- to 160Sm N/A N/A 1280.05 -
161Pm 160.94586(54)# 700# ms β- to 161Sm 5/2-# N/A 1288.12 -
162Pm 161.95029(75)# 500# ms β- to 162Sm N/A N/A 1286.89 -
163Pm 162.95368(86)# 200# ms β- to 163Sm 5/2-# N/A 1294.96 -
Promethium Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Promethium

  • D.J.C. Gomes, F.J. Caires, R.C. Silva, O. Treu-Filho, M. Ionashiro, Synthesis, characterization, thermal and spectroscopic studies of solid glycolate of light trivalent lanthanides, except promethium, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 587, 10 July 2014
  • E. May, M. Thoennessen, Discovery of cesium, lanthanum, praseodymium and promethium isotopes, Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Volume 98, Issue 5, September 2012
  • Vinod K. Gupta, Rajeev Jain, A.J. Hamdan, Shilpi Agarwal, Arvind K. Bharti, A novel ion selective sensor for promethium determination, Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 681, Issues 1–2, 29 November 2010
  • A. Kavetskiy, G. Yakubova, Q. Lin, D. Chan, S.M. Yousaf, K. Bower, J.D. Robertson, A. Garnov, D. Meier, Promethium-147 capacitor, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 67, Issue 6, June 2009
  • Shuichi Sumiya, Naomi Hayashi, Hiromi Katagiri, Osamu Narita, A radioanalytical method for samarium-151 and promethium-147 in environmental samples, Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 130–131, 25 March 1993
  • Adriana Saccone, Stefano Delfino, Riccardo Ferro, Chemical criteria for equilibria forecasts: Promethium alloying behaviour as an example, Calphad, Volume 14, Issue 2, April–June 1990
  • J.K. Gibson, R.G. Haire, Vapor pressure of promethium trifluoride, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 140, 15 March 1989
  • W.R. Wilmarth, R.G. Haire, J.P. Young, D.W. Ramey, J.R. Peterson, Absorption spectrophotometric and X-ray diffraction studies of the trihalides of promethium in the solid state, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 141, Issue 2, August 1988
  • S.M. Jerome, An improved method for the analysis of promethium-147, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 70, March 1988
  • O. Schölten, T. Ozzello, The promethium isotopes in the interacting boson-fermion model, Nuclear Physics A, Volume 424, Issue 2, 6 August 1984
  • O. Scholten, T. Ozzello, An interacting boson-fermion model calculation for the odd-mass promethium isotopes, Physics Letters B, Volume 125, Issues 2–3, 26 May 1983
  • , Promethium, Annals of the ICRP, Volumes 11–13, Part 1, 1983
  • B.M. Johnson, K.W. Jones, T.H. Kruse, L.J. Curtis, D.G. Ellis, Search for promethium-like gold lines and other transitions of interest to fusion research, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Volume 202, Issues 1–2, 1 November 1982
  • , Promethium, Annals of the ICRP, Volume 7, Issues 1–3, 1982
  • , Metabolic data for promethium, Annals of the ICRP, Volume 6, Issues 2–3, 1981
  • J.A. Lubkowitz, W.C. Parker, The utilization of promethium-147 as an ionization source in electron-capture detectors, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 62, Issue 1, 28 October 1971
  • P.G. Pallmer, T.D. Chikalla, The crystal structure of promethium, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 24, Issue 3, July 1971
  • K.V. Chmutov, P.P. Nazarov, G.B. Masslova, V.N. Sheptunov, The isolation of promethium by displacement chromatography due to complex formation, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 59, Issue 2, 1971
  • C.J. Kershner, R.J. Desando, Promethium polonide synthesis and characterization, Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 32, Issue 9, September 1970
  • I. Ferrín, G. Bemski, W. Parker, Diffusion of promethium-147 in silicon, Physics Letters A, Volume 32, Issue 2, 15 June 1970