Promethium Elemental Symbol
Promethium



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Prométhium Promethium Prometio Promécio Prometio Prometium

Promethium Bohr ModelPromethium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Promethium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f5 6s2. The promethium atom has a radius of 183.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 236.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-12-2, promethium has a metalic appearance. Promethium was discovered by Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, and Hans Bethe in 1942. It was first isolated by J. A. Marinsky, Lawrence Glendenin and Charles D. Coryell in 1945. The element name comes from Greek mythology after the titan, Prometheus, who stole the fire of Zeus and gave it to mankind.

Promethium is radioactive. Promethium information, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Promethium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pm Melting Point: 1042 oC, 1907.6 oF, 1315.15 K
Atomic Number: 61 Boiling Point: 3000 oC, 5432 oF, 3273.15 K
Atomic Weight: 145 Density: 7.26 g·cm−3
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 289 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 7.13 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 61 Thermal Conductivity: 17.9 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 61 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) est. 11 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 84 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t.) est. 0.75 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f56s2 Electronegativity: 1.13 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 183 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 199 pm Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: 236 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) est. 46 GPa
Oxidation States: 3 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) est. 18 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) est. 33 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal Poisson Ratio: (α form) est. 0.28
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 538.39 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1051.70 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2151.64 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-12-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22386 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23944 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1942
SMILES Identifier: [Pm]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pm Other Names: Prometio, Promécio
InChI Key: VQMWBBYLQSCNPO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Promethium

  • A novel ion selective sensor for promethium determination. Gupta VK, Jain R, Hamdan AJ, Agarwal S, Bharti AK. Anal Chim Acta. 2010 Nov 29;681(1-2):27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.09.037. Epub 2010 Oct 1.
  • Promethium-147 capacitor. Kavetskiy A, Yakubova G, Lin Q, Chan D, Yousaf SM, Bower K, Robertson JD, Garnov A, Meier D. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009 Jun;67(6):1057-62. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.02.084. Epub 2009 Feb 28.
  • Comparative biokinetics of trivalent radionuclides with similar ionic dimensions: promethium-147, curium-242 and americium-241. Priest ND. Radiat Res. 2007 Sep;168(3):327-31.
  • The response of murine intestinal crypts to short-range promethium-147 beta irradiation: deductions concerning clonogenic cell numbers and positions. Hendry JH, Potten CS, Ghafoor A, Moore JV, Roberts SA, Williams PC. Radiat Res. 1989 May;118(2):364-74.
  • Isolation of strontium-90, yttrium-90, promethium-147, and cerium-144 from wet ashed urine by calcium oxalate coprecipitation and sequential solvent extraction. Kramer GH, Davies JM. Anal Chem. 1982 Jul;54(8):1428-31. No abstract available.
  • [Comparative assessment of exposure of the skin of sexually immature swine to the beta-rays of thallium-204 and promethium-147]. Zav'ialov AP, A'ref'eva ZS, Nazarov VA, Khriashcheva LA. Radiobiologiia. 1977 Mar-Apr;17(2):267-71. Russian. No abstract available.
  • [Comparative assessment of the toxic action of cerium-144 and promethium-147 in rats according to biochemical indices]. Fedorova AV, Zapol'skaia NA. Radiobiologiia. 1977 Mar-Apr;17(2):221-5. Russian. No abstract available.
  • [Effect of inactive vehicles on the behavior of inhaled promethium in the lungs]. Genzike F, Kheltser F, Nitshke KhV. Med Radiol (Mosk). 1976 Apr;21(4):67-9. Russian. No abstract available.
  • Excretion and body distribution of promethium 147: a study in rats after intramuscular injection. Herman MW, Clark AJ. Arch Environ Health. 1973 May;26(5):260-3. No abstract available.
  • [Effectiveness of pentacine on intratracheal administration of promethium-147]. Zhanadilov Sh. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1973 Jan;17(1):42-5. Russian. No abstract available.
  • The effect of mass on promethium retention and removal from the rat. Smith VH. Health Phys. 1972 Jul;23(1):31-9. No abstract available.
  • The utilization of promethium-147 as an ionization source in electron-capture detectors. Lubkowitz JA, Parker WC. J Chromatogr. 1971 Oct 28;62(1):53-61. No abstract available.
  • Spontaneous fission of heavy transuranium elements in the surface layers of the peculiar A star HR 465 explains promethium abundance. Kuchowicz B. Nature. 1971 Aug 20;232(5312):551-2. No abstract available.
  • The uptake of cerium-144, promethium-147, and plutonium-238 by oat plants from soils. Cummings SL, Bankert L. Radiol Health Data Rep. 1971 Feb;12(2):83-5. No abstract available.
  • The uptake, distribution and excretion of promethium in humans and the effect of DTPA on these parameters. Palmer HE, Nelson IC, Crook GH. Health Phys. 1970 Jan;18(1):53-61. No abstract available.
  • Promethium removal studies in miniature swine. BNWL-1050. Smith VH, Amster RL. BNWL Rep. 1970 Jan:5.8+. No abstract available.
  • Effect of promethium concentration on deposition and removal in the rat. BNWL-1050. Smith VH. BNWL Rep. 1970 Jan:5.5+. No abstract available.
  • Removal of firmly bound promethium from the rat. BNWL-1050. Smith VH. BNWL Rep. 1970 Jan:5.3+. No abstract available.
  • The effect of DTPA on excretion of promethium in humans. BNWL-1051. Palmer HE, Crook GH, Nelson IC. BNWL Rep. 1969 Jun:225-6. No abstract available.
  • [Characteristics of barium 140 and promethium 147 behavior in the organism after intratracheal administration]. Dobriakova GV. Radiobiologiia. 1969 Jan-Feb;9(1):101-2. Russian. No abstract available.

Promethium Isotopes


Promethium (Pm) does not exist in nature (except in trace quantities from spontaneous fission and alpha decay of 151Eu). It has no stable isotopes.