Promethium Elemental Symbol
Promethium



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Prométhium Promethium Prometio Promécio Prometio Prometium

Promethium Bohr ModelPromethium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Promethium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f5 6s2. The promethium atom has a radius of 183.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 236.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-12-2, promethium has a metalic appearance. Promethium was discovered by Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, and Hans Bethe in 1942. It was first isolated by J. A. Marinsky, Lawrence Glendenin and Charles D. Coryell in 1945. The element name comes from Greek mythology after the titan, Prometheus, who stole the fire of Zeus and gave it to mankind.

Promethium is radioactive. Promethium information, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Promethium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pm Melting Point: 1042 oC, 1907.6 oF, 1315.15 K
Atomic Number: 61 Boiling Point: 3000 oC, 5432 oF, 3273.15 K
Atomic Weight: 145 Density: 7.26 g·cm−3
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 289 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 7.13 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 61 Thermal Conductivity: 17.9 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 61 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) est. 11 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 84 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t.) est. 0.75 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f56s2 Electronegativity: 1.13 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 183 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 199 pm Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: 236 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) est. 46 GPa
Oxidation States: 3 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) est. 18 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) est. 33 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal Poisson Ratio: (α form) est. 0.28
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 538.39 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1051.70 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2151.64 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-12-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22386 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23944 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1942
SMILES Identifier: [Pm]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pm Other Names: Prometio, Promécio
InChI Key: VQMWBBYLQSCNPO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Promethium

  • D.J.C. Gomes, F.J. Caires, R.C. Silva, O. Treu-Filho, M. Ionashiro, Synthesis, characterization, thermal and spectroscopic studies of solid glycolate of light trivalent lanthanides, except promethium, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 587, 10 July 2014
  • E. May, M. Thoennessen, Discovery of cesium, lanthanum, praseodymium and promethium isotopes, Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Volume 98, Issue 5, September 2012
  • Vinod K. Gupta, Rajeev Jain, A.J. Hamdan, Shilpi Agarwal, Arvind K. Bharti, A novel ion selective sensor for promethium determination, Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 681, Issues 1–2, 29 November 2010
  • A. Kavetskiy, G. Yakubova, Q. Lin, D. Chan, S.M. Yousaf, K. Bower, J.D. Robertson, A. Garnov, D. Meier, Promethium-147 capacitor, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 67, Issue 6, June 2009
  • Shuichi Sumiya, Naomi Hayashi, Hiromi Katagiri, Osamu Narita, A radioanalytical method for samarium-151 and promethium-147 in environmental samples, Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 130–131, 25 March 1993
  • Adriana Saccone, Stefano Delfino, Riccardo Ferro, Chemical criteria for equilibria forecasts: Promethium alloying behaviour as an example, Calphad, Volume 14, Issue 2, April–June 1990
  • J.K. Gibson, R.G. Haire, Vapor pressure of promethium trifluoride, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 140, 15 March 1989
  • W.R. Wilmarth, R.G. Haire, J.P. Young, D.W. Ramey, J.R. Peterson, Absorption spectrophotometric and X-ray diffraction studies of the trihalides of promethium in the solid state, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 141, Issue 2, August 1988
  • S.M. Jerome, An improved method for the analysis of promethium-147, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 70, March 1988
  • O. Schölten, T. Ozzello, The promethium isotopes in the interacting boson-fermion model, Nuclear Physics A, Volume 424, Issue 2, 6 August 1984
  • O. Scholten, T. Ozzello, An interacting boson-fermion model calculation for the odd-mass promethium isotopes, Physics Letters B, Volume 125, Issues 2–3, 26 May 1983
  • , Promethium, Annals of the ICRP, Volumes 11–13, Part 1, 1983
  • B.M. Johnson, K.W. Jones, T.H. Kruse, L.J. Curtis, D.G. Ellis, Search for promethium-like gold lines and other transitions of interest to fusion research, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Volume 202, Issues 1–2, 1 November 1982
  • , Promethium, Annals of the ICRP, Volume 7, Issues 1–3, 1982
  • , Metabolic data for promethium, Annals of the ICRP, Volume 6, Issues 2–3, 1981
  • J.A. Lubkowitz, W.C. Parker, The utilization of promethium-147 as an ionization source in electron-capture detectors, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 62, Issue 1, 28 October 1971
  • P.G. Pallmer, T.D. Chikalla, The crystal structure of promethium, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 24, Issue 3, July 1971
  • K.V. Chmutov, P.P. Nazarov, G.B. Masslova, V.N. Sheptunov, The isolation of promethium by displacement chromatography due to complex formation, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 59, Issue 2, 1971
  • C.J. Kershner, R.J. Desando, Promethium polonide synthesis and characterization, Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 32, Issue 9, September 1970
  • I. Ferrín, G. Bemski, W. Parker, Diffusion of promethium-147 in silicon, Physics Letters A, Volume 32, Issue 2, 15 June 1970

Promethium Isotopes


Promethium (Pm) does not exist in nature (except in trace quantities from spontaneous fission and alpha decay of 151Eu). It has no stable isotopes.