Promethium Elemental Symbol
Promethium



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Prométhium Promethium Prometio Promécio Prometio Prometium

Promethium Bohr ModelPromethium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Promethium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f5 6s2. The promethium atom has a radius of 183.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 236.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-12-2, promethium has a metalic appearance. Promethium was discovered by Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, and Hans Bethe in 1942. It was first isolated by J. A. Marinsky, Lawrence Glendenin and Charles D. Coryell in 1945. The element name comes from Greek mythology after the titan, Prometheus, who stole the fire of Zeus and gave it to mankind.

Promethium is radioactive. Promethium information, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Promethium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pm Melting Point: 1042 oC, 1907.6 oF, 1315.15 K
Atomic Number: 61 Boiling Point: 3000 oC, 5432 oF, 3273.15 K
Atomic Weight: 145 Density: 7.26 g·cm−3
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 289 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 7.13 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 61 Thermal Conductivity: 17.9 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 61 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) est. 11 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 84 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t.) est. 0.75 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f56s2 Electronegativity: 1.13 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 183 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 199 pm Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: 236 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) est. 46 GPa
Oxidation States: 3 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) est. 18 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) est. 33 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal Poisson Ratio: (α form) est. 0.28
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 538.39 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1051.70 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2151.64 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-12-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22386 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23944 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1942
SMILES Identifier: [Pm]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pm Other Names: Prometio, Promécio
InChI Key: VQMWBBYLQSCNPO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Promethium

  • D.J.C. Gomes, F.J. Caires, R.C. Silva, O. Treu-Filho, M. Ionashiro, Synthesis, characterization, thermal and spectroscopic studies of solid glycolate of light trivalent lanthanides, except promethium, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 587, 10 July 2014
  • Adriana Saccone, Stefano Delfino, Riccardo Ferro, Chemical criteria for equilibria forecasts: Promethium alloying behaviour as an example, Calphad, Volume 14, Issue 2, April–June 1990
  • J.K. Gibson, R.G. Haire, Vapor pressure of promethium trifluoride, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 140, 15 March 1989
  • W.R. Wilmarth, R.G. Haire, J.P. Young, D.W. Ramey, J.R. Peterson, Absorption spectrophotometric and X-ray diffraction studies of the trihalides of promethium in the solid state, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 141, Issue 2, August 1988
  • B.M. Johnson, K.W. Jones, T.H. Kruse, L.J. Curtis, D.G. Ellis, Search for promethium-like gold lines and other transitions of interest to fusion research, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Volume 202, Issues 1–2, 1 November 1982
  • P.G. Pallmer, T.D. Chikalla, The crystal structure of promethium, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 24, Issue 3, July 1971
  • C.J. Kershner, R.J. Desando, Promethium polonide synthesis and characterization, Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 32, Issue 9, September 1970
  • E.J. Wheelwright, A comparison of eluting agents for the ion-exchange purification of promethium, Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 31, Issue 10, October 1969
  • Moses Attrep Jr., P.K. Kuroda, Promethium in pitchblende, Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 30, Issue 3, May 1968
  • R.L. Ritzman, R.H. Barnes, D.N. Sunderman, J.F. Kircher, The purification of multi-curie quantities of promethium-147 by ion-exchange using ammonium a-hydroxy-isobutyrate, Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 28, Issue 11, November 1966

Promethium Isotopes


Promethium (Pm) does not exist in nature (except in trace quantities from spontaneous fission and alpha decay of 151Eu). It has no stable isotopes.