Platinum Elemental Symbol
Platinum



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Platine Platin Platino Platina Platino Platina

Platinum(Pt) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPlatinum is a Block D, Group 10, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of platinum's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1. The platinum atom has a radius of 137.3.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 175.pm. Platinum Bohr ModelElemental PlatinumIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-06-4, platinum has a grayish white appearance. Platinum is a member of the platinum group of metals and the group 10 of the periodic table. It is generally non-reactive, even at high temperatures. It is one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust, occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm. Platinum is found uncombined as native platinum and alloyed with iridium as platiniridium. Platinum was first discovered and isolated by Antonio de Ulloa in 1735. The origin of the name comes from the Spanish word platina meaning silver.

Platinum is used in laboratory and dentistry equipment, jewelry, electrical contacts and electrodes, and catalytic converters. It is highly corrosion resistant- the metal does not oxidize in air at any temperature. Platinum compounds are also used in medicine where they are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. High Purity (99.999%) Platinum Oxide (PtO2) PowderPlatinum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Platinum (Pt) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Platinum nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Platinum is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Platinum is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Platinum and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Platinum Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pt Melting Point: 2041 K, 1768 °C, 3215 °F
Atomic Number: 78 Boiling Point: 4098 K, 3825 °C, 6917 °F
Atomic Weight: 195.084 Density: 21.45 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 19.77 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 10, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.13 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 469 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 19.7 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 78 Thermal Conductivity: 71.6 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 78 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 117 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 105 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d96s1 Electronegativity: 2.28 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 139 pm Tensile Strength: 125-240 MPa
Covalent Radius: 136±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.86 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 175 pm Young's Modulus: 168 GPa
Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 61 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 230 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.38
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 4–4.5
1st Ionization Energy: 864.39 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 549 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1791.07 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 392 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 2800 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-06-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22381 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23939 Abundance in universe, by weight: 5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011179 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.03 ppb
EC Number: 231-116-1 Discovered By: Antonio de Ulloa
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1735
SMILES Identifier: [Pt]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pt Other Names:  
InChI Key: BASFCYQUMIYNBI-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Platinum Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Platinum Balls
Platinum Bands
Platinum Bars
Platinum Bits
Platinum Black
Platinum Board
Platinum Boats
Platinum Briquette
Platinum Capsules
Platinum Chunk
Platinum Circle
Platinum Coil
Platinum Coins
Platinum Concentrate
Platinum Conductor Paste
Platinum Crucible
Platinum Cylinder
Platinum Discs
Platinum Dust
Platinum Flake
Platinum Flanges
Platinum Foil
Platinum Fragments
Platinum Gauze
Platinum Grain
Platinum Granules
Platinum Hollow Spheres
Platinum Ingot
Platinum Insulated Wire
Platinum Iridium Marker Bands
Platinum Lump
Platinum Marker Bands
Platinum Mesh
Platinum Metal
Platinum Microfoil
Platinum Microleaf
Platinum Nugget
Platinum on Activated Charcoal
Platinum on Alumina
Platinum on Carbon
Platinum on Graphitized Carbon
Platinum on Silica
Platinum Parts
Platinum Pebbles
Platinum Pellets
Platinum Pieces
Platinum Pills
Platinum Plate
Platinum Powder
Platinum Precipitate
Platinum Prisms
Platinum Pucks
Platinum Residue
Platinum Ribbon
Platinum Rings
Platinum Rocks
Platinum Rod
Platinum Samples
Platinum Scraps
Platinum Segments
Platinum Shaving
Platinum Sheet
Platinum Shot
Platinum Single Crystal
Platinum Sleeves
Platinum Slugs
Platinum Specimens
Platinum Spheres
Platinum Sponges
Platinum Spring
Platinum Strip
Platinum, Sulfided, on Carbon
Platinum Tape
Platinum Tube
Platinum Wafer
Platinum Wire


Oxide Forms

Platinum Oxide Nanopowder
Platinum Oxide Pellets
Platinum Oxide Pieces
Platinum Oxide Powder
Platinum Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Platinum Oxide Shot
Platinum Oxide Sputtering Target
Platinum Oxide Tablets

Compounds

Ammonium Chloroplatinate
Ammonium Hexabromoplatinate
Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate
Ammonium Hexathiocyanoplatinate(IV)
Ammonium Tetrachloroplatinate(II)
Barium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Tetrahydrate
Chloroplatinic Acid Hexahydrate
Chloroplatinic Acid Hydrate
cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum
cis-Diamminetetrachloroplatinum(IV)
Diammineplatinum(II) Nitrite Solution
Dihydrogen dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) Solution
Dihydrogen Hexabromoplatinate(IV) Nonahydrate Solution
Dihydrogen Hexachloroplatinate(IV) Solution
Dihydrogen Hexahydroxyplatinate(IV)
Hydrogen Hexabromoplatinate(IV) Hydrate
Lithium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Hydrate
Platinum Acetate Solution
Platinum(II) Bromide PtBr2
Platinum(IV) Bromide PtBr4
Platinum Carbide
Platinum Chloride
Platinum Chloride Solution
Potassium Chloroplatinate
Platinum Cyanide
Platinum Dichloride
Platinum Dioxide
Platinum Fluoride
Platinum(II) Iodide PtI2
Platinum(IV) Iodide PtI4
Platinum Nitrate
Platinum Nitrate Solution
Platinum Oxide
Platinum Silicide
Platinum Sulfate
Platinum Sulfate Solution
Platinum(II) Sulfide PtS
Platinum(IV) Sulfide PtS2
Platinum Tetrachloride
Potassium Hexachloroplatinate(IV)
Potassium Hexacyanoplatinate(IV)
Potassium Hexahydroxyplatinate(IV)
Potassium Hexaiodoplatinate(IV)
Potassium Tetrachloroplatinate(II)
Potassium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Hydrate
Potassium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Trihydrate
Potassium Tetranitroplatinate(II)
Potassium Trichloro(ethylene)platinate(II) Hydrate
Potassium Trichloroammineplatinate(II)
Sodium Chloroplatinate
Sodium Hexabromoplatinate(IV) Hexahydrate
Sodium Hexachloroplatinate(IV) Hexahydrate
Sodium Hexahydroxyplatinate(IV)
Sodium Hexaiodoplatinate(IV) Hexahydrate
Sodium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Hydrate
Tetraammineplatinum Chloride
Tetraammineplatinum(II) Chloride Hydrate
Tetraammineplatinum(II) Hydrogencarbonate
Tetraammineplatinum(II) Hydroxide Hydrate
Tetraammineplatinum(II) Hydroxide Solution
Tetraammineplatinum(II) Nitrate
Tetraammineplatinum(II) Tetrachloroplatinate(II)
trans-Diaamminedinitroplatinum
trans-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II)
trans-Diamminetetrachloroplatinum(IV)


Sputtering Targets

Gold Platinum Sputtering Target
Nickel Platinum Sputtering Target
Platinum Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Platinum Oxide Sputtering Target
Platinum Palladium Sputtering Target
Platinum Phosphide Sputtering Target
Platinum Rotatable Sputtering Target
Platinum Selenide Sputtering Target
Platinum Sputtering Target
Platinum Telluride Sputtering Target


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Platinum Phosphide
Platinum Selenide
Platinum Single Crystal
Platinum Sulfide
Platinum Telluride
Organometallic Compounds

(1,5-Cyclooctadiene)dimethylplatinum(II)
(2,2'-Bipyridine)dichloroplatinum(II)
2,5-Bis(chloromethyl)-1,4-dimethoxybenzene
5-Hydroxy-2-methylpyridine
Bis(benzonitrile)dichloroplatinum(II)
Bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)platinum(0)
Chloro(2,2':6',2"-terpyridine)platinum(II) Chloride Dihydrate
cis-Bis(acetonitrile)dichloroplatinum(II)
cis-Dichlorobis(diethylsulfide)platinum(II)
cis-Dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(II)
cis-Dichlorobis(pyridine)platinum(II)
cis-Dichlorobis(triethylphosphine)platinum(II)
cis-Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II)
Dibromo(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(II)
Dichloro(1,10-phenanthroline)platinum(II)
Dichloro(1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II)
Dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(II)
Dichloro(ethylenediamine)platinum(II)
Dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(II)
Ethylenebis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0)
Iodotrimethylplatinum(IV)
Platinum Octaethylporphyrin
Platinum(0)-2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane Complex Solution
Platinum (0)-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane Complex
Platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate
Platinum 2-Ethylhexanoate
Platinum Acetylacetonate
Platinium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Potassium bis(oxalato)Platinate(II) Dihydrate
Tetrabutylammonium Hexachloroplatinate(IV)
Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0)
trans-Dichlorobis(diethylsulfide)platinum(II)
trans-Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II)
Tributylphosphine
Trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV)


Alloys

Cobalt Platinum
Chromium Cobalt Platinum
Chromium Cobalt Platinum Tantalum
Chromium Manganese Platinum
Cobalt Platinum Alloy
Gold/Platinum/Palladium Powder
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Manganese Palladium Platinum
Manganese Platinum
Nickel Platinum Alloy
Platinum Cobalt on Carbon
Platinum/Gold Conductor Paste
Platinum Iridium Alloy
Platinum Iridium Foil
Platinum Iridium Tube
Platinum Iridium Wire
Platinum Palladium Gold Alloy
Platinum/Palladium/Gold Conductor Paste
Platinum Rhodium Alloy
Platinum Rhodium Foil
Platinum Rhodium Wire
Platinum Ruthenium Black
Platinum Ruthenium Foil
Platinum Ruthenium on Carbon Black
Platinum Ruthenium on High Surface Area Advanced Carbon Support
Platinum Ruthenium Wire
Platinum Ruthenium Alloy on Graphitized Carbon
Silver/Palladium/Platinum Conductor Paste
Silver/Platinum Conductor Paste
Titanium Platinum Alloy


Nanomaterials

Gold Nanorods, Platinum coated
Platinum Hollow Nanospheres
Platnium Nanoparticles
Platinum Nanoprisms
Platinum Nanorods
Platinum Oxide Nanopowder
Silver Platinum Nanopowder

Isotopes

Platinum 194 Metal Isotope
Platinum 196 Metal Isotope
Platinum 198 Metal Isotope




Recent Research & Development for Platinum

  • Porous platinum nanotubes labeled with hemin/G-quadruplex based electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive thrombin analysis via the cascade signal amplification. Sun A, Qi Q, Wang X, Bie P. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014.
  • Disposable amperometric biosensor based on lactate oxidase immobilised on platinum nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanofiber and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) films. Lamas-Ardisana PJ, Loaiza OA, Añorga L, Jubete E, Borghei M, Ruiz V, Ochoteco E, Cabañero G, Grande HJ. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014.
  • A droplet-based microfluidic electrochemical sensor using platinum-black microelectrode and its application in high sensitive glucose sensing. Gu S, Lu Y, Ding Y, Li L, Song H, Wang J, Wu Q. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 May.
  • Direct electrochemistry of myoglobin at reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes-platinum nanoparticles nanocomposite and biosensing towards hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. Mani V, Dinesh B, Chen SM, Saraswathi R. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014.
  • Emerging treatment strategies in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: Focus on trabectedin. Poveda A, Ray-Coquard I, Romero I, Lopez-Guerrero JA, Colombo N. Cancer Treat Rev. 2014 Apr.
  • Highly selective and sensitive adenosine aptasensor based on platinum nanoparticles as catalytical label for amplified detection of biorecognition events through H2O2 reduction. Shahdost-Fard F, Salimi A, Khezrian S. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Mar.
  • "Turn off-on" fluorescent sensor for platinum drugs-DNA interactions based on quantum dots. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/09/11 | first author:Zhao D
  • Platinum porous nanoparticles hybrid with metal ions as probes for simultaneous detection of multiplex cancer biomarkers. Wang Z, Liu N, Ma Z. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Mar.
  • Triple signal amplification using gold nanoparticles, bienzyme and platinum nanoparticles functionalized graphene as enhancers for simultaneous multiple electrochemical immunoassay. Jia X, Chen X, Han J, Ma J, Ma Z. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Mar.
  • Fabrication of disposable gold macrodisc and platinum microband electrodes for use in room-temperature ionic liquids. Xiong L, Lowinsohn D, Ward KR, Compton RG. Analyst. 2013 Sep.
  • Preparation and characterization of three dimensional graphene foam supported platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanocatalysts for hydrogen peroxide based electrochemical biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/09/10 | first author:Kung CC
  • Synthesis, photophysics, and reverse saturable absorption of platinum complexes bearing extended p-conjugated C^N^N ligands. Li Z, Sun W. Dalton Trans. 2013 Oct.
  • Enhanced cytotoxicity to cancer cells by mitochondria-targeting MWCNTs containing platinum(IV) prodrug of cisplatin. Biomaterials. 2014 create date:2013/10/22 | first author:Yoong SL
  • A histopathological study of Hudson River crayfish, Orconectes virilis, exposed to platinum group metals. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2014 create date:2013/11/01 | first author:Wren M
  • Unidirectional suppression of hydrogen oxidation on oxidized platinum clusters. Hang Li Y, Xing J, Jia Chen Z, Li Z, Tian F, Rong Zheng L, Feng Wang H, Hu P, Jun Zhao H, Gui Yang H. Nat Commun. 2013 Sep.
  • Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of a novel 14-membered [N4] macrocyclic ligand and its Palladium(II), Platinum(II), Ruthenium(III) and Iridium(III) complexes. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Rani S
  • Electrochemical biosensors for biocontaminant detection consisting of carbon nanotubes, platinum nanoparticles, dendrimers, and enzymes. Anal Biochem. 2013 create date:2013/09/17 | first author:Siriviriyanun A
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated by platinum catalyst nanoparticles-Examination and microanalysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Guinel MJ, Brodusch N, Verde-Gómez Y, Escobar-Morales B, Gauvin R. J Microsc. 2013 Oct.
  • Ultrasensitive thrombin detection based on direct electrochemistry of highly loaded hemoglobin spheres-encapsulated platinum nanoparticles as labels and electrocatalysts. Wu Y, Xu W, Bai L, Yuan Y, Yi H, Chai Y, Yuan R. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 Dec.
  • Interaction of platinum nanoparticles with graphitic carbon structures: a computational study. Schneider WB, Benedikt U, Auer AA. Chemphyschem.

Platinum Isotopes


Natural platinum (Pt) has five stable isotopes (192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 198Pt) and one radioisotope with a very long half life (190Pt).

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
190Pt 189.9599320 6.5(3)×1011 a 0+
192Pt 191.9610380 Observationally Stable 0+
194Pt 193.9626803 Observationally Stable 0+
195Pt 194.9647911 Observationally Stable 1/2-
196Pt 195.9649515 Observationally Stable 0+
198Pt 197.9678930 Observationally Stable 0+