Plutonium Elemental Symbol
Plutonium



French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Plutonium Plutonium Plutonio Plutônio Plutonio Plutonium

Plutonium Bohr ModelPlutonium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 7 element. The number of electrons in each of Plutonium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Rn] 5f6 7s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-07-5, plutonium has a silvery white appearance. The plutonium atom has a radius of 151.3.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Plutonium is found in some concentrated ores of uranium. Plutonium was discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, J. W. Kennedy and A. C. Wahl  in 1940. The element Plutonium was named after the planet Pluto.

Plutonium is radioactive and toxic. Plutonium information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Plutonium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pu Melting Point: 640 oC, 1184 oF, 913.15 K
Atomic Number: 94 Boiling Point: 3228 oC, 5842.4 oF, 3501.15 K
Atomic Weight: 244 Density: 19814 kg m-3
Element Category: Actinide Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 16.63 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 7, f Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 333.5 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.82 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 94 Thermal Conductivity: 6.74 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 94 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 46.7 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 150 Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) 1.460 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f67s2 Electronegativity: 1.28 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 159 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 187±1 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 35.5 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 243 pm Young's Modulus: 96 GPa
Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3 Shear Modulus: 43 GPa
Phase: Solid  Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: monoclinic Poisson Ratio: 0.21
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 584.7 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: N/A Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: 2260 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-07-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22382 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23940 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Glenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1940
SMILES Identifier: [Pu]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pu Other Names: Plutonio
InChI Key: OYEHPCDNVJXUIW-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Plutonium

  • Radiation risk of malignant neoplasms in organs of main deposition for plutonium in the cohort of mayak workers with regard to histological types. Labutina EV, Kuznetsova IS, Hunter N, Harrison J, Koshurnikova NA. Health Phys. 2013 Aug;105(2):165-76. doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e31828f57df.
  • Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway. Wendel CC, Fifield LK, Oughton DH, Lind OC, Skipperud L, Bartnicki J, Tims SG, Høibråten S, Salbu B. Environ Int. 2013 Jun 20;59C:92-102. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2013.05.017. [Epub ahead of print]
  • plutonium(IV) Cluster with a Hexanuclear [Pu6(OH)4O4](12+) Core. Knope KE, Soderholm L. Inorg Chem. 2013 Jun 17;52(12):6770-2. doi: 10.1021/ic4007185. Epub 2013 May 28.
  • Isotopic ratio correlation for the isotopic composition analysis of plutonium in Am-Pu mixed samples having High americium content. Patra S, Agarwal C, Chaudhury S, Newton Nathaniel T, Gathibandhe M, Goswami A. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013 Aug;78:139-44. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2013.04.007. Epub 2013 Apr 17.
  • Examination of the effect of alpha radiolysis on plutonium(V) sorption to quartz using multiple plutonium isotopes. Hixon AE, Arai Y, Powell BA. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Aug 1;403:105-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.04.007. Epub 2013 Apr 24.
  • Dispersion stability and electrokinetic properties of intrinsic plutonium colloids: implications for subsurface transport. Abdel-Fattah AI, Zhou D, Boukhalfa H, Tarimala S, Ware SD, Keller AA. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Jun 4;47(11):5626-34. doi: 10.1021/es304729d. Epub 2013 May 15.
  • Application of ICP-DRC-MS to screening test of strontium and plutonium in environmental samples at Fukushima. Sakama M, Nagano Y, Saze T, Higaki S, Kitade T, Izawa N, Shikino O, Nakayama S. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013 Apr 2. doi:pii: S0969-8043(13)00146-2. 10.1016/j.apradiso.2013.03.056. [Epub ahead of print]
  • A study on determination of potentially hazardous plutonium isotopes in environmental samples. Struminska-Parulska DI. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2013;31(2):145-69. doi: 10.1080/10590501.2013.782175.
  • plutonium concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS. Bu K, Cizdziel JV, Dasher D. J Environ Radioact. 2013 Apr 29;124C:29-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Crystal growth and first crystallographic characterization of mixed uranium(IV)-plutonium(III) oxalates. Tamain C, Arab Chapelet B, Rivenet M, Abraham F, Caraballo R, Grandjean S. Inorg Chem. 2013 May 6;52(9):4941-9. doi: 10.1021/ic302587t. Epub 2013 Apr 11.
  • AMS of the Minor plutonium Isotopes. Steier P, Hrnecek E, Priller A, Quinto F, Srncik M, Wallner A, Wallner G, Winkler S. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B. 2013 Jan;294(2-2):160-164.
  • Comparisons of plutonium, thorium, and cerium tellurite sulfates. Lin J, Cross JN, Diwu J, Meredith NA, Albrecht-Schmitt TE. Inorg Chem. 2013 Apr 15;52(8):4277-81. doi: 10.1021/ic302216y. Epub 2013 Mar 25.
  • Determination of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu at femtogram and attogram levels - evidence for the migration of fallout plutonium in an ombrotrophic peat bog profile. Quinto F, Hrnecek E, Krachler M, Shotyk W, Steier P, Winkler SR. Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2013 Apr;15(4):839-47. doi: 10.1039/c3em30910j.
  • plutonium transport in the environment. Kersting AB. Inorg Chem. 2013 Apr 1;52(7):3533-46. doi: 10.1021/ic3018908. Epub 2013 Mar 4.
  • Modeling aeolian transport of soil-bound plutonium: considering infrequent but normal environmental disturbances is critical in estimating future dose. Michelotti EA, Whicker JJ, Eisele WF, Breshears DD, Kirchner TB. J Environ Radioact. 2013 Jun;120:73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.01.011. Epub 2013 Mar 1.
  • Role of cation interactions in the reduction process in plutonium-americium mixed oxides. Belin RC, Martin PM, Lechelle J, Reynaud M, Scheinost AC. Inorg Chem. 2013 Mar 18;52(6):2966-72. doi: 10.1021/ic3023776. Epub 2013 Feb 26.
  • Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008): assessment of internal dose from measurement results of plutonium activity in urine. Khokhryakov VV, Khokhryakov VF, Suslova KG, Vostrotin VV, Vvedensky VE, Sokolova AB, Krahenbuhl MP, Birchall A, Miller SC, Schadilov AE, Ephimov AV. Health Phys. 2013 Apr;104(4):366-78. doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e31827dbf60.
  • Lung cancer risks from plutonium: an updated analysis of data from the Mayak worker cohort. Gilbert ES, Sokolnikov ME, Preston DL, Schonfeld SJ, Schadilov AE, Vasilenko EK, Koshurnikova NA. Radiat Res. 2013 Mar;179(3):332-42. doi: 10.1667/RR3054.1. Epub 2013 Feb 7.
  • From yellow to black: dramatic changes between cerium(IV) and plutonium(IV) molybdates. Cross JN, Duncan PM, Villa EM, Polinski MJ, Babo JM, Alekseev EV, Booth CH, Albrecht-Schmitt TE. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Feb 20;135(7):2769-75. doi: 10.1021/ja311910h. Epub 2013 Feb 11.
  • Anthropogenic plutonium in the North Jiangsu tidal flats of the Yellow Sea in China. Liu Z, Zheng J, Pan S, Gao J. Environ Monit Assess. 2013 Aug;185(8):6539-51. doi: 10.1007/s10661-012-3045-7. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Plutonium Isotopes


Plutonium is an artificial element. It has no stable isotopes.