Rhenium Elemental Symbol
Rhenium



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Rhénium Rhenium Renio Rênio Renio Rhenium

Rhenium(Re) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolRhenium is a Block D, Group 7, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of rhenium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2. Rhenium Bohr ModelThe rhenium atom has a radius of 137.1.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-15-5, rhenium has a silvery-white appearance. Rhenium is the fourth densest element exceeded only by platinum, iridium, and osmium. Elemental RheniumRhenium's high melting point is exceeded only by tungsten and carbon. Rhenium is found in small amounts in gadolinite and molybdenite. It is usually extracted from the flue dusts of molybdenum smelters. Annual world production is around 4.5 tons. Rhenium was first discovered by Masataka Ogawa in 1908. It was first isolated by Walter Noddack, also in 1908. The name Rhenium originates from the Latin word 'Rhenus' meaning "Rhine" after the place of discovery.

High-temperature rhenium super-alloys are used to make jet engine parts. Platinum-rhenium catalysts are used in lead-free, high-octane, gasoline. Rhenium is also used as a filament for mass spectrographs and ion gauges. Because Rhenium has good wear resistance and withstands arc corrosion, it is used as an electrical contact material. Thermocouples made of Re-W are used for measuring temperatures up to 2200C, and rhenium wire is used in photographic flash lamps. Rhenium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Rhenium Oxide (ReO2) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Rhenium (Re) Sputtering TargetRhenium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Rhenium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Very little is known about the toxicity of rhenium and its compounds. Safety data for Rhenium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Rhenium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Re Melting Point: 3459 K, 3186 °C, 5767 °F
Atomic Number: 75 Boiling Point: 5869 K, 5596 °C, 10105 °F
Atomic Weight: 186.207 Density: 21.02 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 18.9 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 7, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.14 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 704.25 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 33.1 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 75 Thermal Conductivity: 48.0 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 75 Thermal Expansion: 6.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 111 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 193 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d56s2 Electronegativity: 1.9 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 137 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 151±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.48 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200.pm Young's Modulus: 463 GPa
Oxidation States: 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1 (mildly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 178 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 370 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.30
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 7.0
1st Ionization Energy: 760 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: 2450 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1260 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: 1320 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2510 kJ·mol−1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4700 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-15-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22388 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23947 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011195 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.001 ppb
EC Number: 231-124-5 Discovered By: Masataka Ogawa
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1908
SMILES Identifier: [Re]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Re Other Names: Rhénium, Renio, Rênio
InChI Key: WUAPFZMCVAUBPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Rhenium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Rhenium

  • New p-tolylimido rhenium(v) complexes with carboxylate-based ligands: synthesis, structures and their catalytic potential in oxidations with peroxides. Gryca I, Machura B, Malecki JG, Shul'pina LS, Pombeiro AJ, Shul'pin GB. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • Study on an oxygen sensing rhenium(I) complex with enlarged sensing/active area: Fabrication, photophysical parameters and molecular oxygen sensing performance. Xu G, Lu M, Huang C, Wang Y, Ge S. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014
  • Synthesis of tripeptide derivatized cyclopentadienyl complexes of technetium and rhenium as radiopharmaceutical probes. Nadeem Q, Can D, Shen Y, Felber M, Mahmood Z, Alberto R. Org Biomol Chem. 2014
  • Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Rhenium(I) Tricarbonyl Complex of 5,10,15,20-Tetra-p-tolyl-21,23-dithiaporphyrin. Kaur T, Ghosh A, Rajakannu P, Ravikanth M. Inorg Chem. 2014
  • Separation of no-carrier-added rhenium from bulk tantalum by the sodium malonate-PEG aqueous biphasic system. Appl Radiat Isot. | first author:Dutta B
  • New p-tolylimido rhenium(v) complexes with carboxylate-based ligands: synthesis, structures and their catalytic potential in oxidations with peroxides. Gryca I, Machura B, MaÅ‚ecki JG, Shul'pina LS, Pombeiro AJ, Shul'pin GB. Dalton Trans. 2014
  • Bench to bedside development of GMP grade Rhenium-188-HEDP, a radiopharmaceutical for targeted treatment of painful bone metastases. Ter Heine R, Lange R, Breukels OB, Bloemendal HJ, Rummenie RG, Wakker AM, de Graaf H, Beekman FJ, van der Westerlaken MM, Malingré MM, Wielders JP, van den Berg L, Hendrikse NH, de Klerk JM. Int J Pharm. 2014
  • Theoretical studies on the electronic structures and photoelectron spectra of tri-rhenium oxide clusters: Re3On(-) and Re3On (n=1-6). Zhou Q, Gong WC, Xie L, Zheng CG, Zhang W, Wang B, Zhang YF, Huang X. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan
  • Towards cancer cell-specific phototoxic organometallic rhenium(i) complexes. Leonidova A, Pierroz V, Rubbiani R, Heier J, Ferrari S, Gasser G. Dalton Trans. 2014
  • p-Tolylimido rhenium(v) complexes - synthesis, X-ray studies, spectroscopic characterization, DFT calculations and catalytic activity. Machura B, Gryca I, Malecki JG, Alonso F, Moglie Y. Dalton Trans. 2014 Feb.
  • Biodistribution of Rhenium Cluster Complex K4[Re6S8(CN)6] in the Body of Laboratory Rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013 | first author:Brylev KA
  • CO2 Capture by a Rhenium(I) Complex with the Aid of Triethanolamine. Morimoto T, Nakajima T, Sawa S, Nakanishi R, Imori D, Ishitani O. J Am Chem Soc.
  • A Reusable Unsupported Rhenium Nanocrystalline Catalyst for Acceptorless Dehydrogenation of Alcohols through γ-C-H Activation. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 24282107 create date:2013/11/28 | first author:Yi J
  • Hydrogenation of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol over rhenium catalyst supported on copper-containing mesoporous carbon. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 24245272 create date:2013/11/20 | first author:Hong UG
  • A density functional theory study of the mechanisms of oxidation of ethylene by rhenium oxide complexes. Aniagyei A, Tia R, Adei E. Dalton Trans.
  • Alkene Oxyalkylation Enabled by Merging Rhenium Catalysis with Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagents via Decarboxylation. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 24236498 create date:2013/11/19 | first author:Wang Y
  • Isostructural nuclear and luminescent probes derived from stabilized [2 + 1] rhenium(i)/technetium(i) organometallic complexes. Inorg Chem. 2013 | first author:Pitchumony TS
  • Theoretical studies on the binding of rhenium(I) complexes to inducible nitric oxide synthase. Oliveira BL, Moreira IS, Fernandes PA, Ramos MJ, Santos I, Correia JD. J Mol Graph Model.
  • Activation of Nitriles by Metal Ligand Cooperation. Reversible Formation of Ketimido- and Enamido-Rhenium PNP Pincer Complexes and Relevance to Catalytic Design. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 | first author:Vogt M
  • Aggregation-Induced Emission Enhancement in Alkoxy-Bridged Binuclear Rhenium(I) Complexes: Application as Sensor for Explosives and Interaction with Microheterogeneous Media. J Phys Chem B. | first author:Sathish V

Rhenium Isotopes


Naturally occurring rhenium (Re) has two isotopes: 185Re (37.4%) and 187Re (62.6%) .

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
185Re 184.9529550 Observationally Stable 5/2+
187Re 186.9557531 41.2(2)×109 a 5/2+