Rhenium Elemental Symbol
Rhenium



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Rhénium Rhenium Renio Rênio Renio Rhenium

Rhenium(Re) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolRhenium is a Block D, Group 7, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of rhenium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2. Rhenium Bohr ModelThe rhenium atom has a radius of 137.1.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-15-5, rhenium has a silvery-white appearance. Rhenium is the fourth densest element exceeded only by platinum, iridium, and osmium. Elemental RheniumRhenium's high melting point is exceeded only by tungsten and carbon. Rhenium is found in small amounts in gadolinite and molybdenite. It is usually extracted from the flue dusts of molybdenum smelters. Annual world production is around 4.5 tons. Rhenium was first discovered by Masataka Ogawa in 1908. It was first isolated by Walter Noddack, also in 1908. The name Rhenium originates from the Latin word 'Rhenus' meaning "Rhine" after the place of discovery.

High-temperature rhenium super-alloys are used to make jet engine parts. Platinum-rhenium catalysts are used in lead-free, high-octane, gasoline. Rhenium is also used as a filament for mass spectrographs and ion gauges. Because Rhenium has good wear resistance and withstands arc corrosion, it is used as an electrical contact material. Thermocouples made of Re-W are used for measuring temperatures up to 2200C, and rhenium wire is used in photographic flash lamps. Rhenium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Rhenium Oxide (ReO2) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Rhenium (Re) Sputtering TargetRhenium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Rhenium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Very little is known about the toxicity of rhenium and its compounds. Safety data for Rhenium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Rhenium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Re Melting Point: 3459 K, 3186 °C, 5767 °F
Atomic Number: 75 Boiling Point: 5869 K, 5596 °C, 10105 °F
Atomic Weight: 186.207 Density: 21.02 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 18.9 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 7, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.14 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 704.25 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 33.1 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 75 Thermal Conductivity: 48.0 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 75 Thermal Expansion: 6.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 111 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 193 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d56s2 Electronegativity: 1.9 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 137 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 151±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.48 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200.pm Young's Modulus: 463 GPa
Oxidation States: 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1 (mildly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 178 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 370 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.30
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 7.0
1st Ionization Energy: 760 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: 2450 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1260 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: 1320 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2510 kJ·mol−1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4700 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-15-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22388 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23947 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011195 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.001 ppb
EC Number: 231-124-5 Discovered By: Masataka Ogawa
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1908
SMILES Identifier: [Re]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Re Other Names: Rhénium, Renio, Rênio
InChI Key: WUAPFZMCVAUBPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Rhenium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Rhenium

  • Junya Nakamura, Takahiro Kaneko, Takashi Hara, Kyosuke Yoshimi, Kouichi Maruyama, Hirokazu Katsui, Takashi Goto, Site-occupation behavior and solid-solution hardening effect of rhenium in Mo5SiB2, Intermetallics, Volume 53, October 2014
  • Gabriele Albertin, Stefano Antoniutti, Jesús Castro, Silvio Siddi, Preparation of diethylcyanamide and cyanoguanidine complexes of manganese and rhenium, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Volume 767, 15 September 2014
  • Mei Rui, Wang Yuhong, Wang Yinting, Zhang Na, Phosphorescent rhenium emitters based on two electron-withdrawing diamine ligands: Structure, characterization and electroluminescent performance, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 153, September 2014
  • Chowan Ashok Kumar, S. Karthikeyan, Babu Varghese, V. Veena, N. Sakthivel, Bala. Manimaran, Synthesis, characterisation and cytotoxicity evaluation of rhenium(I) based ester functionalised dinuclear metallacyclophanes, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Volume 766, 1 September 2014
  • Jamaladin Shakeri, Hassan Hadadzadeh, Hossein Tavakol, Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO by a dinuclear carbonyl polypyridyl rhenium(I) complex, Polyhedron, Volume 78, 16 August 2014
  • David E.J. Armstrong, T.B. Britton, Effect of dislocation density on improved radiation hardening resistance of nano-structured tungsten–rhenium, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 611, 12 August 2014
  • Hua-Tian Shi, Chao Xu, Ai-Quan Jia, Xiang-Hong Huang, Qian-Feng Zhang, Syntheses and structures of two rhenium–sulfur–copper cubane-like cluster compounds with the bridging sulfate anions, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 419, 1 August 2014
  • Malgorzata Holynska, Tadeusz Lis, Decomposition of pentachloridooxidorhenates(VI) – A still underinvestigated source of rhenium complexes at different oxidation states, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 419, 1 August 2014
  • Keith Man-Chung Wong, Chunyan Wang, Ho-Chuen Lam, Nianyong Zhu, Bichromophoric rhodamine-rhenium(I) and -Iridium(III) sensory system: Synthesis, characterizations, photophysical and selective metal ions binding studies, Polyhedron, Available online 14 July 2014
  • James T. Goettel, Douglas Turnbull, Michael Gerken, A New Synthetic Route to Rhenium and Iodine Oxide Fluoride Anions: The Reaction between Oxoanions and Sulfur Tetrafluoride, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Available online 9 July 2014
  • J.G. Malecki, B. Machura, A. Palion, I. Gryca, M. Oboz, T. Gron, Heterometallic complexes involving copper(II) and rhenium(VII) centers, Polyhedron, Volume 76, 7 July 2014
  • Roberta Cargnelutti, Ernesto S. Lang, Paulo Piquini, Ulrich Abram, Synthesis and structure of [ReOSe(2-Se-py)3]: A rhenium(V) complex with selenium(0) as a ligand, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 45, July 2014
  • Stefan Huber, Alexander Pöthig, Wolfgang A. Herrmann, Fritz E. Kühn, Evaluation of theoretical functionals for structural and vibrational energy predictions on organo-rhenium(VII) oxides, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Volume 760, 15 June 2014
  • Nairong Sun, Lanting Zhang, Zhigang Li, Aidang Shan, The effect of microstructure on the creep behavior of a low rhenium-containing single crystal nickel-based superalloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 606, 12 June 2014
  • Nairong Sun, Lanting Zhang, Zhigang Li, Aidang Shan, Effect of heat-treatment on microstructure and high-temperature deformation behavior of a low rhenium-containing single crystal nickel-based superalloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 606, 12 June 2014
  • Mostafa Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad Ranjbar, Mehdi Alizadeh, Effect of operational parameters and internal recycle on rhenium solvent extraction from leach liquors using a mixer-settler, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, Volume 17, Issue 2, June 2014
  • Giovanni Valenti, Monica Panigati, Alessandro Boni, Giuseppe D’Alfonso, Francesco Paolucci, Luca Prodi, Diazine bridged dinuclear rhenium complex: New molecular material for the CO2 conversion, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 417, 1 June 2014
  • Joseph D. Lessard, Daniel G. Gribbin, Leonid N. Shekhter, Recovery of rhenium from molybdenum and copper concentrates during the Looping Sulfide Oxidation process, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Volume 44, May 2014
  • Li'an Zhu, Shuxin Bai, Hong Zhang, Yicong Ye, Wei Gao, Long-term high-temperature oxidation of iridium coated rhenium by electrical resistance heating method, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Volume 44, May 2014
  • Chi-Chiu Ko, Apple Wai-Yi Cheung, Shek-Man Yiu, Synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical study of diisocyano-bridged homodinuclear rhenium(I) diimine complexes, Polyhedron, Available online 13 April 2014

Rhenium Isotopes


Naturally occurring rhenium (Re) has two isotopes: 185Re (37.4%) and 187Re (62.6%) .

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
185Re 184.9529550 Observationally Stable 5/2+
187Re 186.9557531 41.2(2)×109 a 5/2+