|Formula||CAS No.||PubChem SID||PubChem CID||MDL No.||EC No||IUPAC Name||Beilstein
|PROPERTIES||Compound Formula||Mol. Wt.||Appearance||Melting Point||Boiling Point||Density||Monoisotopic Mass||Charge||MSDS|
|N/A||7.642 g/cm3||N/A||807.679443||N/A||Safety Data Sheet|
Recent research has confirmed that Bismuth Telluride may significantly increase the speed of microchips and be the basis for the emerging next generation technology know as "Spintronics". Technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.
Bismuth is a Block P, Group 15, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Bismuth's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. In its elemental form bismuth's CAS number is 7440-69-9. The bismuth atom has a radius of 154.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Bismuth is not toxic. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal, except mercury. Bismuth is not toxic. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall Effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field). Bismuth expands on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly suited to the making of sharp castings of objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium , etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which are extensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also used as a thermocoupling material, and has found application as a carrier for 235 U or 233 U fuel in nuclear reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forming unsoluble basic salts on the addition of water, a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics. Bismuth is found in bismuthinite Bi2S3 and bismite Bi2O3. It is also produced as a byproduct of lead, copper, tin, molybdenum and tungsten extraction. Bismuth was first discovered by Early Man. The name Bismuth originates from the German word 'wissmuth' meaning white mass. See Bismuth research below.
Tellurium is a Block P, Group 16, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Tellurium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 6 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4. In its elemental form tellurium's CAS number is 13494-80-9. The tellurium atom has a radius of 143.2.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 206.pm. Tellurium is a p-type semiconductor, and shows greater conductivity in certain directions, depending on alignment of the atoms. It is grown in crystalline form with other elements such as indium telluride. Its conductivity increases slightly with exposure to light which makes many tellurides candidates for solar energy applications. Tellurium improves the machinability of copper and stainless steel, and its addition to lead decreases the corrosive action of sulfuric acid on lead and improves its strength and hardness. Tellurium is used as a basic ingredient in blasting caps, and is added to cast iron for chill control. Tellurium is used in ceramics. Bismuth telluride has been used in thermoelectric devices. Researchers at Singapore's A*STAR Data Storage Institute recently developed a new Iron–Tellurium phase-change material which may lead to new optical media and solid-state memory applications. Tellurium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Tellurium is most commonly sourced from the anode sludges produced as a byproduct of copper refining. Tellurium was first discovered by Franz Muller von Reichenstein in 1782. The name Tellurium originates from the Greek word 'Tellus' meaning Earth. See Tellurium research below.
|HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION|
|Material Safety Data Sheet||MSDS|
|Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
|BISMUTH TELLURIDE SYNONYMS|
|Dibismuth tritelluride, Bismuth telluride, Bismuth sesquitelluride|
CUSTOMERS FOR BISMUTH TELLURIDE HAVE ALSO LOOKED AT
|Show Me MORE Forms of Bismuth|
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Bismuth
- The effects of bismuth breast shields in conjunction with automatic tube current modulation in CT imaging. Servaes S, Zhu X. Pediatr Radiol. 2013 May 23.
- Anti-CD33-antibodies labelled with the alpha-emitter Bismuth-213 kill CD33-positive acute myeloid leukaemia cells specifically by activation of caspases and break radio- and chemoresistance by inhibition of the anti-apoptotic proteins X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and B-cell lymphoma-extra large. Friesen C, Roscher M, Hormann I, Leib O, Marx S, Moreno J, Miltner E. Eur J Cancer. 2013 May 16. doi:pii: S0959-8049(13)00310-9. 10.1016/j.ejca.2013.04.008.
- Synthesis of the bismuth oxyhalide solid solutions with tunable band gap and photocatalytic activities. Ren K, Liu J, Liang J, Zhang K, Zheng X, Luo H, Huang Y, Liu P, Yu X. Dalton Trans. 2013 May 17.
- Topologically protected quantum transport in locally exfoliated bismuth at room temperature. Sabater C, Gosálbez-Martínez D, Fernández-Rossier J, Rodrigo JG, Untiedt C, Palacios JJ. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Apr 26;110(17):176802. 2013 Apr 23.
- A brief history of bismuth encephalopathy. [No authors listed] Prescrire Int. 2013 Apr;22(137):92. No abstract available.
- Bismuth + metronidazole + tetracycline. Why risk adding bismuth? [No authors listed] Prescrire Int. 2013 Apr;22(137):89-92.
- Anisotropic nano-column arrays of bismuth and its conductivity. Tian Y, Guo S, Liu Q. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Feb;13(2):776-80.
- Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation. Hernandez-Delgadillo R, Velasco-Arias D, Martinez-Sanmiguel JJ, Diaz D, Zumeta-Dube I, Arevalo-Niño K, Cabral-Romero C. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:1645-52. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S38708. 2013 Apr 24.
- Lipophilic bismuth phosphates: a molecular tetradecanuclear cage and a 1D-coordination polymer. Synthesis, structure and conversion to BiPO4. Chandrasekhar V, Metre RK, Suriya Narayanan R. Dalton Trans. 2013 Apr 30.
- Bismuth (III) PVC membrane ion selective electrodes based on two compounds: Acylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone with 1,3,4-thiadiazole. Yan Z, Wang S, Wang H, Wu S. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 Jul 1;33(5):2562-8. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.02.017. 2013 Feb 19.
- Insertion of CO2 and COS into Bi-C Bonds: Reactivity of a Bismuth NCN Pincer Complex of an Oxyaryl Dianionic Ligand, [2,6-(Me2NCH2)2C6H3]Bi(C6H2(t)Bu2O). Kindra DR, Casely IJ, Fieser ME, Ziller JW, Furche F, Evans WJ. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 May 22;135(20):7777-87. doi: 10.1021/ja403133f. 2013 May 10.
- Phase transformation and thermoelectric properties of bismuth-telluride nanowires. Hsin CL, Wingert M, Huang CW, Guo H, Shih TJ, Suh J, Wang K, Wu J, Wu WW, Chen R. Nanoscale. 2013 Jun 7;5(11):4669-72. doi: 10.1039/c3nr00876b. 2013 Apr 25.
- Synthesis, characterization and enhanced thermoelectric performance of structurally ordered cable-like novel polyaniline-bismuth telluride nanocomposite. Chatterjee K, Mitra M, Kargupta K, Ganguly S, Banerjee D. Nanotechnology. 2013 May 31;24(21):215703. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/24/21/215703. 2013 Apr 26.
- Dendrimer-stabilized bismuth sulfide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and potential computed tomography imaging applications. Fang Y, Peng C, Guo R, Zheng L, Qin J, Zhou B, Shen M, Lu X, Zhang G, Shi X. Analyst. 2013 May 7;138(11):3172-80. doi: 10.1039/c3an00237c.
- Reversible multicomponent self-assembly mediated by bismuth ions. Johnson AM, Young MC, Hooley RJ. Dalton Trans. 2013 Jun 21;42(23):8394-401. doi: 10.1039/c3dt50578b. 2013 Apr 24.
- Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Wu WG, Gu J, Dong P, Lu JH, Li ML, Wu XS, Yang JH, Zhang L, Ding QC, Weng H, Ding Q, Liu YB. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr 21;19(15):2441-4. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i15.2441.
- Centers of near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped TlCl and CsI crystals. Sokolov VO, Plotnichenko VG, Dianov EM. Opt Express. 2013 Apr 22;21(8):9324-32. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.009324.
- Can bismuth film screen printed carbon electrodes be used to study complexation? Sosa V, Serrano N, Ariño C, Manuel Díaz-Cruz J, Esteban M. Talanta. 2013 Mar 30;107:356-60. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.01.033. 2013 Feb 1.
- Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of compositional-modulated lead telluride-bismuth telluride nanowire heterostructures. Fang H, Feng T, Yang H, Ruan X, Wu Y. Nano Lett. 2013 May 8;13(5):2058-63. doi: 10.1021/nl400319u. 2013 Apr 15.
- Effect of Fluoroquinolone Resistance on 14-day Levofloxacin Triple and Triple Plus Bismuth Quadruple Therapy. Liao J, Zheng Q, Liang X, Zhang W, Sun Q, Liu W, Xiao S, Graham DY, Lu H. Helicobacter. 2013 Apr 15. doi: 10.1111/hel.12052.
Recent Research & Development for Tellurides
- Gender differences in the evaluation of coronary artery disease with a cadmium-zinc telluride camera. Gimelli A, Bottai M, Quaranta A, Giorgetti A, Genovesi D, Marzullo P. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013 May 24. [Epub ahead of print]
- Band Gap Engineering of Zinc Selenide Thin Films Through Alloying with Cadmium Telluride. Al-Kuhaili MF, Kayani A, Durrani SM, Bakhtiari IA, Haider MB. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 May 30. [Epub ahead of print]
- Reply: cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT in very morbidly obese patients routinely provides high-diagnostic-quality myocardial perfusion imaging. Kaufmann P, Gaemperli O. J Nucl Med. 2013 Apr;54(4):661-2. No abstract available.
- Phase transformation and thermoelectric properties of bismuth-telluride nanowires. Hsin CL, Wingert M, Huang CW, Guo H, Shih TJ, Suh J, Wang K, Wu J, Wu WW, Chen R. Nanoscale. 2013 Jun 7;5(11):4669-72. doi: 10.1039/c3nr00876b. Epub 2013 Apr 25.
- Synthesis, characterization and enhanced thermoelectric performance of structurally ordered cable-like novel polyaniline-bismuth telluride nanocomposite. Chatterjee K, Mitra M, Kargupta K, Ganguly S, Banerjee D. Nanotechnology. 2013 May 31;24(21):215703. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/24/21/215703. Epub 2013 Apr 26.
- Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of compositional-modulated lead telluride-bismuth telluride nanowire heterostructures. Fang H, Feng T, Yang H, Ruan X, Wu Y. Nano Lett. 2013 May 8;13(5):2058-63. doi: 10.1021/nl400319u. Epub 2013 Apr 15.
- Shedding light on vacancy-doped copper chalcogenides: shape-controlled synthesis, optical properties, and modeling of copper telluride nanocrystals with near-infrared plasmon resonances. Kriegel I, Rodríguez-Fernández J, Wisnet A, Zhang H, Waurisch C, Eychmüller A, Dubavik A, Govorov AO, Feldmann J. ACS Nano. 2013 May 28;7(5):4367-77. doi: 10.1021/nn400894d. Epub 2013 Apr 22.
- Cadmium telluride quantum dots cause oxidative stress leading to extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Nguyen KC, Willmore WG, Tayabali AF. Toxicology. 2013 Apr 5;306:114-23. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2013.02.010. Epub 2013 Feb 26.
- Large enhancement of nonlinear optical response in a hybrid nanobiomaterial consisting of bacteriorhodopsin and cadmium telluride quantum dots. Rakovich A, Nabiev I, Sukhanova A, Lesnyak V, Gaponik N, Rakovich YP, Donegan JF. ACS Nano. 2013 Mar 26;7(3):2154-60. doi: 10.1021/nn3049939. Epub 2013 Mar 8.
- d-penicillamine capped cadmium telluride quantum dots as a novel fluorometric sensor of copper(II). Mohammad-Rezaei R, Razmi H, Abdolmohammad-Zadeh H. Luminescence. 2013 Feb 28. doi: 10.1002/bio.2484. [Epub ahead of print]
- Communication: Van der Waals corrections for an improved structural description of telluride based materials. Micoulaut M. J Chem Phys. 2013 Feb 14;138(6):061103. doi: 10.1063/1.4792195.
- Cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT in very morbidly obese patients routinely provides high-diagnostic-quality myocardial perfusion imaging. Schwartz RG, Wexler O, Peterson B, Schwartz AM, Mis FJ, Mackin M. J Nucl Med. 2013 Apr;54(4):661. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.112.117960. Epub 2013 Jan 31. No abstract available.
- Simulation and experimental characterization of the point spread function, pixel saturation, and blooming of a mercury cadmium telluride focal plane array. Soehnel G, Tanbakuchi A. Appl Opt. 2012 Nov 20;51(33):7987-93. doi: 10.1364/AO.51.007987.
- Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols. Verger A, Djaballah W, Fourquet N, Rouzet F, Koehl G, Imbert L, Poussier S, Fay R, Roch V, Le Guludec D, Karcher G, Marie PY. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013 Feb;40(3):331-40. doi: 10.1007/s00259-012-2292-8. Epub 2012 Nov 27.
- Iron telluride nanorods-based system for the detection of total mercury in blood. Roy P, Lin ZH, Liang CT, Chang HT. J Hazard Mater. 2012 Dec;243:286-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.10.033. Epub 2012 Oct 23.
- Caesium diuranium hexa-telluride. Mesbah A, Ibers JA. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online. 2012 Oct 1;68(Pt 10):i76. doi: 10.1107/S1600536812038512. Epub 2012 Sep 19.
- Thermoelectric characterization of bismuth telluride nanowires, synthesized via catalytic growth and post-annealing. Hamdou B, Kimling J, Dorn A, Pippel E, Rostek R, Woias P, Nielsch K. Adv Mater. 2013 Jan 11;25(2):239-44. doi: 10.1002/adma.201202474. Epub 2012 Nov 2.
- One-pot preparation of highly fluorescent cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide quantum dots under neutral-pH condition for biological applications. Zhu Y, Li Z, Chen M, Cooper HM, Lu GQ, Xu ZP. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Jan 15;390(1):3-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2012.08.003. Epub 2012 Oct 2.
- Imaging properties of small-pixel spectroscopic x-ray detectors based on cadmium telluride sensors. Koenig T, Schulze J, Zuber M, Rink K, Butzer J, Hamann E, Cecilia A, Zwerger A, Fauler A, Fiederle M, Oelfke U. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Nov 7;57(21):6743-59. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/57/21/6743. Epub 2012 Oct 3.
- Sn-doped bismuth telluride nanowires with high conductivity. Mi G, Li L, Zhang Y, Zheng G. Nanoscale. 2012 Oct 21;4(20):6276-8.
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