|Product||Product Code||Order or Specifications|
|(2N) 99% Thorium Nitrate||TH-NAT-02|
|(3N) 99.9% Thorium Nitrate||TH-NAT-03|
|(4N) 99.99% Thorium Nitrate||TH-NAT-04|
|Formula||CAS No.||PubChem SID||PubChem CID||MDL No.||EC No||IUPAC Name||Beilstein
|Th(NO3)4·xH2O||13823-29-5||24889181||N/A||MFCD03094924||237-514-1||Thorium(+4) cation tetranitrate||N/A||[Th+4].O=[N+]([O-])[O-].[O-][N+]([O-])=O.[O-][N+]([O-])=O.[O-][N+]([O-])=O||InChI=1S/4NO3.Th/c4*2-1(3)4;/q4*-1;+4||VGBPIHVLVSGJGR-UHFFFAOYSA-N|
|PROPERTIES||Compound Formula||Mol. Wt.||Appearance||Density||Monoisotopic Mass||Charge||MSDS|
|N4O12Th||246.04||White||g/cm3||N/A||N/A||0||Safety Data Sheet|
Thorium Nitrate is a highly water soluble crystalline Thorium source for uses compatible with nitrates and lower (acidic) pH. All metallic nitrates are inorganic salts of a given metal cation and the nitrate anion. The nitrate anion is a univalent (-1 charge) polyatomic ion composed of a single nitrogen atom ionically bound to three oxygen atoms (Formula: NO3) for a total formula weight of 62.05. Nitrate compounds are generally soluble in water. Nitrate materials are also oxidizing agents. When mixed with hydrocarbons, nitrate compounds can form a flammable mixture. Nitrates are excellent precursors for production of ultra high purity compounds and certain catalyst and nanoscale (nanoparticles and nanopowders) materials. Thorium Nitrate is generally immediately available in most volumes. Ultra high purity, high purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. We also produce Thorium Nitrate Solution. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.
Thorium (atomic symbol: Th, atomic number: 90) is a Block F, Group 3, Period 7 element with an atomic weight of 232.03806. The number of electrons in each of thorium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2] and its electron configuration is [Rn] 6d2 7s2. The thorium atom has a radius of 179 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 237 pm. Thorium was first discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1829. The name Thorium originates from the Scandinavian god Thor, the Norse god of war and thunder. In its elemental form, thorium has a silvery, sometimes black-tarnished, appearance. It is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils. Thorium is a radioactive element that is currently the best contender for replacing uranium as nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors. It provides greater safety benefits, an absence of non-fertile isotopes, and it is both more available and abundant in the Earth's crust than uranium. For more information on Thorium, including properties, satefy data, research, and American Elements' catalog of Thorium products, visit the Thorium Information Center.
HEALTH, SAFETY & TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
UN 1477 5.1/PG 2
THORIUM NITRATE SYNONYMS
Thorium nitrate hydrate, Thorium(4+) tetranitrate, Thorium(IV) nitrate
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Thorium
- On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes. Mostapha S, Fontaine-Vive F, Berthon L, Boubals N, Zorz N, Solari PL, Charbonnel MC, Den Auwer C. Int J Radiat Biol. 2014.
- The permanent electric dipole moment of thorium sulfide, ThS. Le A, Heaven MC, Steimle TC. J Chem Phys. 2014 Jan.
- Photochemical route to actinide-transition metal bonds: synthesis, characterization and reactivity of a series of thorium and uranium heterobimetallic complexes. Ward AL, Lukens WW, Lu CC, Arnold J. J Am Chem Soc. 2014.
- Thorium induced cytoproliferative effect in human liver cell HepG2: Role of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and downstream signaling. Ali M, Kumar A, Pandey BN. Chem Biol Interact. 2014.
- The role of chemical interactions between thorium, cerium, and lanthanum in lymphocyte toxicity. Oliveira MS, Duarte IM, Paiva AV, Yunes SN, Almeida CE, Mattos RC, Sarcinelli PN. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2014.
- Thorium and Uranium Carbide Cluster Cations in the Gas Phase: Similarities and Differences between Thorium and Uranium. Pereira CC, Maurice R, Lucena AF, Hu S, Gonçalves AP, Marçalo J, Gibson JK, Andrews L, Gagliardi L. Inorg Chem. 2013 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Pereira CC
- Synthesis and Characterization of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) Corrole Complexes. Ward AL, Buckley HL, Lukens WW, Arnold J. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 create date:2013/09/06 | first author:Ward AL
- Systematic Investigation of Thorium(IV)- and Uranium(IV)-Ligand Bonding in Dithiophosphonate, Thioselenophosphinate, and Diselenophosphonate Complexes. Behrle AC, Barnes CL, Kaltsoyannis N, Walensky JR. Inorg Chem. 2013 create date:2013/08/31 | first author:Behrle AC
- Comparison of the Reactivity of 2-Li-C(6) H(4) CH(2) NMe(2) with MCl(4) (M=Th, U): Isolation of a Thorium Aryl Complex or a Uranium Benzyne Complex. Seaman LA, Pedrick EA, Tsuchiya T, Wu G, Jakubikova E, Hayton TW. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 create date:2013/08/15 | first author:Seaman LA
- Ethyl thiosemicarbazide intercalated organophilic calcined hydrotalcite as a potential sorbent for the removal of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) ions from aqueous solutions. Anirudhan TS, Jalajamony S. J Environ Sci (China). 2013 create date:2013/08/09 | first author:Anirudhan TS
- Current commentary: thorium-based nuclear power. Rhodes CJ. Sci Prog. 2013 create date:2013/08/02 | first author:Rhodes CJ
- Thorium fluorides ThF, ThF2, ThF3, ThF4, ThF3(F2), and ThF5- characterized by infrared spectra in solid argon and electronic structure and vibrational frequency calculations. Andrews L, Thanthiriwatte KS, Wang X, Dixon DA. Inorg Chem. 2013 create date:2013/06/29 | first author:Andrews L
- An Insight into Third-Phase Formation during the Extraction of Thorium Nitrate: Evidence for Aggregate Formation from Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Validation by Computational Studies. Verma PK, Pathak PN, Mohapatra PK, Aswal VK, Sadhu B, Sundararajan M. J Phys Chem B. 2013 create date:2013/07/31 | first author:Verma PK
- Adsorption of lanthanides(III), uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) from nitric acid solutions by carbon inverse opals modified with tetraphenylmethylenediphospine dioxide. Turanov AN, Karandashev VK, Masalov VM, Zhokhov AA, Emelchenko GA. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 create date:2013/06/22 | first author:Turanov AN
- Use of pectin-thorium (IV) tungstomolybdate nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Pathania D, Kothiyal NC, Sharma G. Carbohydr Polym. 2013 create date:2013/05/22 | first author:Gupta VK
- Thermodynamics of tetravalent thorium and uranium complexes from first-principles calculations. Johnson DF, Bhaskaran-Nair K, Bylaska EJ, de Jong WA. J Phys Chem A. 2013 create date:2013/05/17 | first author:Johnson DF
- A tetrapositive metal ion in the gas phase: thorium(IV) coordinated by neutral tridentate ligands. Gong Y, Hu HS, Tian G, Rao L, Li J, Gibson JK. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 create date:2013/05/08 | first author:Gong Y
- Comparisons of plutonium, thorium, and cerium tellurite sulfates. Lin J, Cross JN, Diwu J, Meredith NA, Albrecht-Schmitt TE. Inorg Chem. 2013 create date:2013/03/27 | first author:Lin J
- Anomalous bulk compression behaviour in a hyperstoichiometric uranium-dioxide-thorium-dioxide solid solution. Tschauner O, Ma C, Grubor-Urosevic O, Chen YJ. J Phys Condens Matter. 2013 create date:2013/03/19 | first author:Tschauner O
- Uranium and thorium adsorption from aqueous solution using a novel polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-pumice composite. Akkaya R. J Environ Radioact. 2013 create date:2013/02/19 | first author:Akkaya R
Recent Research & Development for Nitrates
- Screening of assimilatory and dissimilatory denitrifying microbes isolated from nitrate-contaminated water and soil. Seenivasagan R, Rajakumar S, Kasimani R, Ayyasamy PM. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2014 Aug.
- Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and nitrate reductase coimmobilized bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate. Madasamy T, Pandiaraj M, Balamurugan M, Bhargava K, Sethy NK, Karunakaran C. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Feb.
- Stable isotope analysis of plant-derived nitrate - Novel method for discrimination between organically and conventionally grown vegetables. Mihailova A, Pedentchouk N, Kelly SD. Food Chem. 2014 July
- Multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study investigating the non-inferiority of efficacy and safety of a 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with a 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp. Buechner SA. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014
- Effect of nitrate ions on the efficiency of sonophotochemical phenol degradation. Zaviska F, Drogui P, El Hachemi EM, Naffrechoux E. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Jan.
- Photoluminescence studies on the complexation of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) in nitrate medium. Pathak PN, Mohapatra M, Godbole SV. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Nov.
- A potential carrier based on liquid crystal nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine nitrate. Li J, Wu L, Wu W, Wang B, Wang Z, Xin H, Xu Q. Int J Pharm. 2013 Oct.
- Synthesis, growth and characterization of a nonlinear optical crystal: Bis l-proline hydrogen nitrate. Selvaraju K, Kirubavathi K. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Nov.
- Nitrate removal from eutrophic wetlands polluted by metal-mine wastes: Effects of liming and plant growth. González-Alcaraz MN, Conesa HM, Alvarez-Rogel J. J Environ Manage. 2013 Oct.
- Affinity binding via Zinc(II) for controlled orientation and electrochemistry of Histidine-tagged nitrate reductase in self-assembled monolayers. Campbell WH, Henig J, Plumeré N. Bioelectrochemistry. 2013 Oct.
- The nitrate time bomb: a numerical way to investigate nitrate storage and lag time in the unsaturated zone. Wang L, Butcher AS, Stuart ME, Gooddy DC, Bloomfield JP. Environ Geochem Health. 2013 Oct.
- Direct and indirect photodegradation of estriol in the presence of humic acid, nitrate and iron complexes in water solutions. Chen Y, Zhang K, Zuo Y. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Oct.
- Nitrate source apportionment in a subtropical watershed using Bayesian model. Yang L, Han J, Xue J, Zeng L, Shi J, Wu L, Jiang Y. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Oct.
- A novel and efficient synthesis of diverse dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans using the ceric ammonium nitrate-catalyzed formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of 1,4-naphthoquinones to olefins and its application to furomollugin. Xia L, Lee YR. Org Biomol Chem. 2013 Sep.
- Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR/NMR) characterization, X-ray structure and DFT studies on (E)-2-(1-phenylethylidene) hydrazinecarboximidamide nitrate hemimethanol. Ozdemir N, Inkaya E, Saripinar E, Akyüz L, Ilhan IÖ, Aydin S, Dinçer M, Büyükgüngör O. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Oct.
- Comments on the "Nitrate contamination in ground water of some rural areas of Rajasthan, India" by Suthar et al. Satpathy KK, Padhi RK, Samantara MK. Hazard Mater. 2013 Sep.
- Nitrate-based niche differentiation by distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Green-Saxena A, Dekas AE, Dalleska NF, Orphan VJ. ISME J. 2013 Sep.
- Model-Based Integration and Analysis of Biogeochemical and Isotopic Dynamics in a Nitrate-Polluted Pyritic Aquifer. Zhang YC, Prommer H, Broers HP, Slomp CP, Greskowiak J, van der Grift B, Van Cappellen P. Environ Sci Technol. 2013.
- Raman Spectroscopic Study of Temperature and Pressure Effects on the Ionic Liquid Propylammonium Nitrate. Faria LF, Penna TC, Ribeiro MC. J Phys Chem B. 2013 Sep.
- Nitrogen Oxyanion Dependent Dissociation of a Two-Component Complex that Regulates Bacterial Nitrate Assimilation. Luque-Almagro VM, Lyall VJ, Ferguson SJ, Roldan MD, Richardson DJ, Gates AJ. J Biol Chem. 2013.