Titanium Chromium Sputtering Target
High Purity Ti-Cr Sputtering Target
American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopeia/British Pharmacopeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards.See safety data and research below and pricing/lead time above. American Elements specializes in producing high purity Titanium Chromium Sputtering Targets with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in semiconductor, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) display and optical applications. Our standard Sputtering Targets for thin film are available monoblock or bonded with dimensions and configurations up to 820 mm with hole drill locations and threading, beveling, grooves and backing designed to work with both older sputtering devices as well as the latest process equipment, such as large area coating for solar energy or fuel cells and flip-chip applications. Research sized targets are also produced as well as custom sizes and alloys. All targets are analyzed using best demonstrated techniques including X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS), and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). "Sputtering" allows for thin film deposition of an ultra high purity sputtering metallic or oxide material onto another solid substrate by the controlled removal and conversion of the target material into a directed gaseous/plasma phase through ionic bombardment. We can also provide targets outside this range in addition to just about any size rectangular, annular, or oval target. Materials are produced using crystallization, solid state and other ultra high purification processes such as sublimation. American Elements specializes in producing custom compositions for commercial and research applications and for new proprietary technologies. American Elements also casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced materials into rod, bar or plate form, as well as other machined shapes and through other processes nanoparticles. We also produce Titanium as rods, powder and plates. Other shapes are available by request.
Titanium (atomic symbol: Ti, atomic number: 22) is a Block D, Group 4, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 47.867. The number of electrons in each of Titanium's shells is [2, 8, 10, 2] and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The titanium atom has a radius of 147 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 187 pm. Titanium was discovered by William Gregor in 1791 and first isolated by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1825. n its elemental form, titanium has a silvery grey-white metallic appearance. Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium, both of which have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table. Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes: 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Titanium is found in igneous rocks and the sediments derived from them. It is named after the word Titanos, which is Greek for Titans. For more information on titanium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of titanium products, visit the Titanium Information Center.
Chromium (atomic symbol: Cr, atomic number: 24) is a Block D, Group 6, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 51.9961. The number of electrons in each of Chromium's shells is 2, 8, 13, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d5 4s1. Chromium was first discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in 1797. It was first isolated in 1798, also by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin. The chromium atom has a radius of 128 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 189 pm. In its elemental form, chromium has a lustrous steel-gray appearance. Chromium is the hardest metal element in the periodic table and the only element that exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature, above which it tranforms into a paramagnetic solid. The most common source of chromium is chromite ore (FeCr2O4). Due to its various colorful compounds, Chromium was named after the Greek word 'chroma' meaning color. For more information on chromium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of chromium products, visit the Chromium Information Center.
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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Titanium
- Enhanced cellular responses to titanium coating with hierarchical hybrid structure. Xie Y, Ao H, Xin S, Zheng X, Ding C. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014.
- Surface modification of titanium substrates with silver nanoparticles embedded sulfhydrylated chitosan/gelatin polyelectrolyte multilayer films for antibacterial application. Li W, Xu D, Hu Y, Cai K, Lin Y. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2014.
- A novel coating of type IV collagen and hyaluronic acid on stent material-titanium for promoting smooth muscle cell contractile phenotype. Li J, Zhang K, Chen H, Liu T, Yang P, Zhao Y, Huang N. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014
- Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials for Photovoltaic Applications. Bai Y, Mora-Seró I, De Angelis F, Bisquert J, Wang P. Chem Rev. 2014.
- Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants. Zhang Z, Yuan L, Lee PD, Jones E, Jones JR. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2014.
- Serum titanium, niobium and aluminium levels two years following instrumented spinal fusion in children: does implant surface area predict serum metal ion levels? Cundy TP, Cundy WJ, Antoniou G, Sutherland LM, Freeman BJ, Cundy PJ. Eur Spine J. 2014.
- Influence of surface layer on mechanical and corrosion properties of nickel-titanium orthodontic wires. Katić V, Curković HO, Semenski D, Baršić G, Marušić K, Spalj S. Angle Orthod. 2014.
- Titanium allergy: fact or fiction? [No authors listed] Br Dent J. 2014.
- The impact of a continuing education programme on the adoption of nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and root-filling quality amongst a group of Swedish general dental practitioners. Dahlström L, Molander A, Reit C. Eur J Dent Educ. 2014
- Evaluation of the sealing capability of implants to titanium and zirconia abutments against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum under different screw torque values. Smith NA, Turkyilmaz I. J Prosthet Dent. 2014.
- A new consumable anode material of titanium oxycarbonitride for the USTB titanium process. Wang Q, Song J, Wu J, Jiao S, Hou J, Zhu H. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014
- Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants. Le VQ, Pourroy G, Cochis A, Rimondini L, Abdel-Fattah WI, Mohammed HI, Carradò A. Biomatter. 2014.
- Influence of mechanical instruments on the biocompatibility of titanium dental implants surfaces: a systematic review. Louropoulou A, Slot DE, Van der Weijden F. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014.
- Antibiotic-decorated titanium with enhanced antibacterial activity through adhesive polydopamine for dental/bone implant. He S, Zhou P, Wang L, Xiong X, Zhang Y, Deng Y, Wei S. J R Soc Interface. 2014.
- Fibroblast attachment onto novel titanium mesh membranes for guided bone regeneration. Rakhmatia YD, Ayukawa Y, Atsuta I, Furuhashi A, Koyano K. Odontology. 2014.
- A Remarkable Solvent Effect on the Nuclearity of Neutral Titanium(IV)-Based Helicate Assemblies. Weekes DM, Diebold C, Mobian P, Huguenard C, Allouche L, Henry M. Chemistry. 2014
- Effects of titanium-based nanotube films on osteoblast behavior in vitro. Stan MS, Memet I, Fratila C, Krasicka-Cydzik E, Roman I, Dinischiotu A. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014.
- [Reconstruction of isolated orbital floor fractures with a prefabricated titanium mesh]. Reich W, Seidel D, Bredehorn-Mayr T, Eckert AW. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2014.
- Evaluation of surface characteristics of titanium and cobalt chromium implant abutment materials. Herbst D, Dullabh H, Sykes L, Vorster C. SADJ.
- Zygomatic complex fracture: A comparative evaluation of stability using titanium and bio-resorbable plates as one point fixation. Tripathi N, Goyal M, Mishra B, Dhasmana S. Natl J Maxillofac Surg.
Recent Research & Development for Chromium
- Use of modified wheat bran for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. Kaya K, Pehlivan E, Schmidt C, Bahadir M. Food Chem. 2014.
- Reduction of hexavalent chromium by digested oat bran proteins. Tsopmo A, Gao Q, Baakdah MM. Food Chem. 2014 Jun.
- Speciation of chromium and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion using titanium dioxide nanotubes packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2014 | first author:Chen S
- Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) assembled on magnetic Fe3O4/graphene for Chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 | first author:Lv X
- Bacterial and osteoblast behavior on titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy and stainless steel treated with alkali and heat: A comparative study for potential orthopedic applications. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 | first author:Hu X
- Acute Toxicity by Water Containing Hexavalent or Trivalent Chromium in Native Brazilian Fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus: Anatomopathological Alterations and Mortality. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014 | first author:Castro MP
- Antioxidant effect of propolis against exposure to chromium in Cyprinus carpio. Environ Toxicol. 2014 create date:2011/11/05 | first author:Yonar ME
- Acute and chronic toxicity of chromium and cadmium to the tropical cladoceran pseudosida ramosa and the implications for ecotoxicological studies. Environ Toxicol. 2014 | first author:Freitas EC
- Formation of oxo-centered trinuclear chromium carboxylate complexes and hydrolysis of Cr3 as established by paramagnetic (2)H NMR spectroscopy. J Inorg Biochem. 2014 | first author:Royer AC
- Chromium stress response effect on signal transduction and expression of signaling genes in rice. Physiol Plant. 2014 create date:2013/09/17 | first author:Trinh NN
- Enhanced adsorption of chromium onto activated carbon by microwave-assisted H3PO4 mixed with Fe/Al/Mn activation. J Hazard Mater. 2014 create date:2013/12/24 | first author:Sun Y
- Highly sensitive detection of chromium (III) ions by resonance Rayleigh scattering enhanced by gold nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 | first author:Chen M
- A new heteroleptic oxalate-based compound: poly[[2-(aminomethyl)pyridine]di-Î¼6-oxalato-chromium(III)potassium(I)]. Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem. 2014 create date:2014/01/09 | first author:Kenfack Tsobnang P.
- Chromium(III) complexation to natural organic matter: mechanisms and modeling. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 | first author:Gustafsson JP
- Supplementary Chromium(III) Propionate Complex Does Not Protect Against Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Fed Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014 create date:2014/01/15 | first author:Król E
- Kinetics for adsorptive removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by ferri hydroxide/oxohydroxides. Ecotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Yu XZ
- Assessment of chromium efficacy on germination, root elongation, and coleoptile growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth periods. Environ Monit Assess. 2014 create date:2014/01/15 | first author:Dotaniya ML
- High Concentrations of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water Alter Iron Homeostasis in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 create date:2014/01/15 | first author:Suh M
- Phytoremediation Potential and Nutrient Status of Barringtonia acutangula Gaerth. Tree Seedlings Grown Under Different Chromium (CrVI) Treatments. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014 create date:2014/01/09 | first author:Kumar D
- Sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of chromium(vi) based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanotube arrays. Jin W, Wu G, Chen A. Analyst. 2014.