Titanium Silicon Alloy
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Titanium Silicon is one of numerous metal alloys sold by American Elements under the tradename AE Alloys™. Generally immediately available in most volumes, AE Alloys™ are available as bar, Ingot, ribbon, wire, shot, sheet, and foil. Ultra high purity and high purity forms also include metal powder, submicron powder and nanoscale, targets for thin film deposition, and pellets for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) applications. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Primary applications include bearing assembly, ballast, casting, step soldering, and radiation shielding.
Titanium (atomic symbol: Ti, atomic number: 22) is a Block D, Group 4, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 47.867. The number of electrons in each of Titanium's shells is [2, 8, 10, 2] and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The titanium atom has a radius of 147 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 187 pm. Titanium was discovered by William Gregor in 1791 and first isolated by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1825. n its elemental form, titanium has a silvery grey-white metallic appearance. Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium, both of which have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table. Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes: 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Titanium is found in igneous rocks and the sediments derived from them. It is named after the word Titanos, which is Greek for Titans. For more information on titanium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of titanium products, visit the Titanium Information Center.
Silicon (atomic symbol: Si, atomic number: 14) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 3 element with an atomic weight of 28.085. The number of electrons in each of Silicon's shells is 2, 8, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The silicon atom has a radius of 111 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 210 pm. Silicon was discovered and first isolated by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1823. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust, by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. The metalloid is rarely found in pure crystal form and is usually produced from the iron-silicon alloy Ferrosilicon. Silica (or silicon oxide), as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, one of the most inexpensive of materials with excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties. Ultra high purity silicon can be doped with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic to produce silicon for use in transistors, solar cells, rectifiers, and other solid-state devices which are used extensively in the electronics industry.The name Silicon originates from the Latin word "silex" which means flint or hard stone. For more information on silicon, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of silicon products, visit the Silicon Information Center.
PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
|Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.|
Recent Research & Development for Titanium
- Oral, short-term exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rat: focus on reproductive and endocrine systems and spleen. Nanotoxicology. 2014 Sep. | first author:Tassinari R
- Enhanced toxicity of 'bulk' titanium dioxide compared to 'fresh' and 'aged' nano-TiO2 in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Nanotoxicology. 2014 Aug. | first author:D'Agata A
- Three human cell types respond to multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide nanobelts with cell-specific transcriptomic and proteomic expression patterns. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Tilton SC
- The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide. Nanotoxicology. 2014 Aug. | first author:Kan H
- Design of a nitrogen-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy with optimized properties for biomedical applications. Gordin DM, Busardo D, Cimpean A, Vasilescu C, Höche D, Drob SI, Mitran V, Cornen M, Gloriant T. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 Oct.
- Speciation of chromium and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion using titanium dioxide nanotubes packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2014 create date:2013/12/24 | first author:Chen S
- Comprehensive assessment of nephrotoxicity of intravenously administered sodium-oleate-coated ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in rats. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/01/01 | first author:Volkovová K
- Tissue distribution and clearance of intravenously administered titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/01/01 | first author:Shinohara N
- Application of a quantitative weight of evidence approach for ranking and prioritising occupational exposure scenarios for titanium dioxide and carbon nanomaterials. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2012/12/19 | first author:Hristozov DR.
- Solution processable titanium dioxide precursor and nanoparticulated ink: Application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 create date:2013/12/12 | first author:Bosch-Jimenez P
- Prenatal exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide enhances depressive-like behaviors in adult rats. Cui Y, Chen X, Zhou Z, Lei Y, Ma M, Cao R, Sun T, Xu J, Huo M, Cao R, Wen C, Che Y. Chemosphere. 2014 Feb.
- Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of boron doped titanium dioxide for photocatalytic water reduction and oxidation. Carmichael P, Hazafy D, Bhachu DS, Mills A, Darr JA, Parkin IP. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Oct.
- Genotoxicity evaluation of nanosized titanium dioxide, synthetic amorphous silica and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human lymphocytes. Tavares AM, Louro H, Antunes S, Quarré S, Simar S, De Temmerman PJ, Verleysen E, Mast J, Jensen KA, Norppa H, Nesslany F, Silva MJ. Toxicol In Vitro. 2014 Feb.
- Stability studies for titanium dioxide nanoparticles upon adsorption of Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids and natural organic matter. Erhayem M, Sohn M. Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jan.
- Studies to control biofilm formation by coupling ultrasonication of natural waters and anodization of titanium. Nithila SD, Anandkumar B, Vanithakumari SC, George RP, Mudali UK, Dayal RK. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Jan
- Validation of a method to quantify titanium, vanadium and zirconium in oral mucosa cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Martín-Cameán A, Jos A, Calleja A, Gil F, Iglesias A, Solano E, Cameán AM. Talanta. 2014.
- Structural, optical and morphological analyses of pristine titanium di-oxide nanoparticles - Synthesized via sol-gel route. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 | first author:Praveen P
- Fabrication of anticoagulation layer on titanium surface by sequential immobilization of poly (ethylene glycol) and albumin. Biomed Mater Eng. 2014 | first author:Pan CJ
- Cytompatibility assessment of the surface of titanium after phosphorylation. Biomed Mater Eng. 2014 | first author:Wu MY
- Photo-conversion of CO2 using titanium dioxide: enhancements by plasmonic and co-catalytic nanoparticles. Mankidy BD, Joseph B, Gupta VK. Nanotechnology. 2013 Oct.
Recent Research & Development for Silicon
- Energy transfer from luminescent centers to Er3+ in erbium-doped silicon-rich oxide films. Jin L, Li D, Xiang L, Wang F, Yang D, Que D. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013 Aug 28;8(1):366.
- Titration of Free Hydroxyl and Strained Siloxane Sites on Silicon Dioxide with Fluorescent Probes. McCrate JM, Ekerdt JG. Langmuir. 2013 Aug 26.
- Silicon nanowire-silver indium selenide heterojunction photodiodes. Kulakci M, Colakoglu T, Ozdemir B, Parlak M, Unalan HE, Turan R. Nanotechnology. 2013 Sep 20;24(37):375203.
- Formation of Carboxy- and Amide-terminated Alkyl Monolayers on Silicon(111) investigated by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and X-Ray Scattering: Construction of Photoswitchable Surfaces. Rueck-Braun K, Petersen MA, Michalik F, Hebert A, Przyrembel D, Weber C, Ahmed SA, Kowarik S, Weinelt M. Langmuir. 2013 Aug 23.
- Electrodeposition of silicon nanotubes at room temperature using ionic liquid. Mallet J, Martineau F, Namur K, Molinari M. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Aug 23.
- Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition. Kato S, Kurokawa Y, Miyajima S, Watanabe Y, Yamada A, Ohta Y, Niwa Y, Hirota M. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013 Aug 23;8(1):361.
- Differential Adsorption of Small Molecules in Spatially Functionalized Porous Silicon Nanostructures. Wu CC, Chen MY, Sailor MJ. Langmuir. 2013 Aug 21.
- Sensitive detection of protein and miRNA cancer biomarkers using silicon-based photonic crystals and a resonance coupling laser scanning platform. George S, Chaudhery V, Lu M, Takagi M, Amro N, Pokhriyal A, Tan Y, Ferreira P, Cunningham BT. Lab Chip. 2013 Aug 20.
- Activation of an intense near band edge emission from ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires grown on silicon. Wojnar P, Szymura M, Zaleszczyk W, Klopotowski L, Janik E, Wiater M, Baczewski LT, Kret S, Karczewski G, Kossut J, Wojtowicz T. Nanotechnology. 2013 Sep 13;24(36):365201.
- Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Thin-Film TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on FIB Micropatterned 3D Isolated Regions of Titanium on Silicon. Amani Hamedani H, Lee SW, Alsammarraie AM, Razavi Hesabi Z, Bhatti A, Alamgir F, Garmestani H, Khaleel MA. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Aug 19.
- In vitro Clearance and Hemocompatibility Assessment of Ultrathin Nanoporous Silicon Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications Using Human Whole Blood. Ahmadi M, Gorbet M, Yeow JT. Blood Purif. 2013 Jul 31;35(4):305-313.
- Dually Active Silicon Nanowire Transistors and Circuits with Equal Electron and Hole Transport. Heinzig A, Mikolajick T, Trommer J, Grimm D, Weber WM. Nano Lett. 2013 Aug 6.
- Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1025:109-15.
- High yield formation of lipid bilayer shells around silicon nanowires in aqueous solution. Römhildt L, Gang A, Baraban L, Opitz J, Cuniberti G. Nanotechnology. 2013 Aug 6;24(35):355601.
- White-light photoluminescence and photoactivation in cadmium sulfide embedded in mesoporous silicon dioxide templates studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pellicer E, Rossinyol E, Rosado M, Guerrero M, Domingo-Roca R, Suriñach S, Castell O, Baró MD, Roldán M, Sort J. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Jun 27.
- Silicon nitride nanopores for nanoparticle sensing. Kong J, Wu H, Liu L, Xie X, Wu L, Ye X, Liu Q. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Jun;13(6):4010-6.
- Wetting and surface energy of vertically aligned silicon nanowires. Jana S, Mondal S, Bhattacharyya SR. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Jun;13(6):3983-9.
- Serotype-specific identification of Dengue virus by silicon nanowire array biosensor. Huang MJ, Xie H, Wan Q, Zhang L, Ning Y, Zhang GJ. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Jun;13(6):3810-7.
- C- and L-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities. Purnawirman, Sun J, Adam TN, Leake G, Coolbaugh D, Bradley JD, Shah Hosseini E, Watts MR. Opt Lett. 2013 Jun 1;38(11):1760-2.