Ytterbium Elemental Symbol
Ytterbium



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Ytterbium Ytterbium Itterbio Itérbio Yterbio Ytterbium

Ytterbium (Yb) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolYtterbium has 2 valency states, +2 and +3. Ytterbium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Ytterbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f14 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-64-4. ytterbium has a silvery-white color.The Ytterbium atom has a radius of 194 pm and its Van der Waals radius is unknown.Elemental Ytterbium On the periodic table, Ytterbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Ytterbium is found in monazite sand as well as the ores euxenite and xenotime. Ytterbium was first discovered by Jean de Marignac in 1878. The name Ytterbium originates after the name for the Swedish village of Ytterby.

Ytterbium is being applied to numerous fiber amplifier and fiber optic technologies and in various lasing applications. It has a single dominant absorption band at 985 in the infra-red making it useful in silicon photocells to directly convert radiant energy to electricity. Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistance when subjected to very high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges for monitoring ground deformations from earthquakes and nuclear explosions. It is also used in thermal barrier system bond coatings on nickel, iron and other transitional metal alloy substrates. Ytterbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Ytterbium (Yb) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Ytterbium Oxide (Yb2O3) PowderYtterbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Ytterbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Ytterbium is considered to be fairly toxic. Safety data for Ytterbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Ytterbium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Yb Melting Point: 824 oC, 1515.2 oF, 1097.15 K
Atomic Number: 70 Boiling Point: 1196 oC, 2184.8 oF, 1469.15 K
Atomic Weight: 173.04 Density: 6570 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.21 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0346 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 38 K-Cal/gm atom at 1194 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.20 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 70 Thermal Conductivity: 0.349 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 70 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (β, poly) 26.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 103 Electrical Resistivity: 29.0 microhm-cm @ 25 °C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f146s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings 
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: 66 MPa
Covalent Radius: 187±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.74 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 242 pm Young's Modulus: (β form) 23.9 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (β form) 9.9 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (β form) 30.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: (β form) 0.207
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 603.44 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 206 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1174.82 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 343 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2416.97 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1590 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-64-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22428 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23992 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011286 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.01 ppb
EC Number: 231-173-2 Discovered By: Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1878
SMILES Identifier: [Yb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Yb Other Names: Itterbio, Itérbio, Yterbio
InChI Key: NAWDYIZEMPQZHO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Ytterbium


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228-H302-H312-H315-H319-H332-H335
Hazard Codes F,Xn
Risk Codes 11-20/21/22
Safety Precautions 16-33-36
RTECS Number ZG1925000
Transport Information UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Flame-Flammables  

Ytterbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Ytterbium

  • Yan Peiguang, Lin Rongyong, Zhang Han, Wang Zhiteng, Chen Han, Ruan Shuangchen, Multi-pulses dynamic patterns in a topological insulator mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser, Optics Communications, Volume 335, 15 January 2015
  • Maitreyee Saha, Atasi Pal, Mrinmay Pal, Ranjan Sen, Influence of aluminum on doping of ytterbium in optical fiber synthesized by vapor phase technique, Optics Communications, Volume 334, 1 January 2015
  • Li Fu, Haiping Xia, Yanming Dong, Shanshan Li, Xuemei Gu, Jianli Zhang, Dongjie Wang, Haochuan Jiang, Baojiu Chen, Upconversion luminescence from terbium and ytterbium codoped LiYF4 single crystals, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 617, 25 December 2014
  • Anthony B. Parmentier, Jonas J. Joos, Philippe F. Smet, Dirk Poelman, Corrigendum to “Luminescence of ytterbium in CaS and SrS” [J. Lumin. 154 (2014)
  • Anthony B. Parmentier, Jonas J. Joos, Philippe F. Smet, Dirk Poelman, Luminescence of ytterbium in CaS and SrS, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • F. Tárkányi, F. Ditrói, S. Takács, A. Hermanne, A.V. Ignatyuk, New data on activation cross section for deuteron induced reactions on ytterbium up to 50 MeV, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 336, 1 October 2014
  • Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Hiromitsu Haba, Naohiko Otuka, Ahmed Rufa’i Usman, Investigation of (d,x) nuclear reactions on natural ytterbium up to 24 MeV, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 335, 15 September 2014
  • Guoyao Li, Lu Wang, Zhigang Yao, Fan Xu, Chiral ytterbium silylamide catalyzed enantioselective phospha-Michael addition of diethyl phosphite to chalcones, Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, Volume 25, Issues 13–14, 31 July 2014
  • Kutloano E. Sekhosana, Tebello Nyokong, Synthesis of ytterbium bisphthalocyanines: Photophysicochemical properties and nonlinear absorption behavior, Optical Materials, Available online 14 June 2014
  • Shuai CHEN, Zhengtang LIU, Liping FENG, Xingsen CHE, Xiaoru ZHAO, Effect of ytterbium inclusion in hafnium oxide on the structural and electrical properties of the high-k gate dielectric, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 6, June 2014

Ytterbium Isotopes


Naturally occurring ytterbium has 7 stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
168Yb 167.933897 Observationally Stable 0+
170Yb 169.9347618 Observationally Stable 0+
171Yb 170.9363258 Observationally Stable 1/2-
172Yb 171.9363815 Observationally Stable 0+
173Yb 172.9382108 Observationally Stable 5/2-
174Yb 173.9388621 Observationally Stable 0+
166Yb 175.9425717 Observationally Stable 0+