Ytterbium Elemental Symbol
Ytterbium



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Ytterbium Ytterbium Itterbio Itérbio Yterbio Ytterbium

Ytterbium (Yb) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolYtterbium has 2 valency states, +2 and +3. Ytterbium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Ytterbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f14 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-64-4. ytterbium has a silvery-white color.The Ytterbium atom has a radius of 194 pm and its Van der Waals radius is unknown.Elemental Ytterbium On the periodic table, Ytterbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Ytterbium is found in monazite sand as well as the ores euxenite and xenotime. Ytterbium was first discovered by Jean de Marignac in 1878. The name Ytterbium originates after the name for the Swedish village of Ytterby.

Ytterbium is being applied to numerous fiber amplifier and fiber optic technologies and in various lasing applications. It has a single dominant absorption band at 985 in the infra-red making it useful in silicon photocells to directly convert radiant energy to electricity. Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistance when subjected to very high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges for monitoring ground deformations from earthquakes and nuclear explosions. It is also used in thermal barrier system bond coatings on nickel, iron and other transitional metal alloy substrates. Ytterbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Ytterbium (Yb) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Ytterbium Oxide (Yb2O3) PowderYtterbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Ytterbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Ytterbium is considered to be fairly toxic. Safety data for Ytterbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Ytterbium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Yb Melting Point: 824 oC, 1515.2 oF, 1097.15 K
Atomic Number: 70 Boiling Point: 1196 oC, 2184.8 oF, 1469.15 K
Atomic Weight: 173.04 Density: 6570 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.21 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0346 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 38 K-Cal/gm atom at 1194 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.20 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 70 Thermal Conductivity: 0.349 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 70 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (β, poly) 26.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 103 Electrical Resistivity: 29.0 microhm-cm @ 25 °C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f146s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings 
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: 66 MPa
Covalent Radius: 187±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.74 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 242 pm Young's Modulus: (β form) 23.9 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (β form) 9.9 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (β form) 30.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: (β form) 0.207
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 603.44 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 206 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1174.82 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 343 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2416.97 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1590 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-64-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22428 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23992 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011286 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.01 ppb
EC Number: 231-173-2 Discovered By: Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1878
SMILES Identifier: [Yb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Yb Other Names: Itterbio, Itérbio, Yterbio
InChI Key: NAWDYIZEMPQZHO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Ytterbium


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228-H302-H312-H315-H319-H332-H335
Hazard Codes F,Xn
Risk Codes 11-20/21/22
Safety Precautions 16-33-36
RTECS Number ZG1925000
Transport Information UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Flame-Flammables  

Ytterbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Ytterbium

  • Anthony B. Parmentier, Jonas J. Joos, Philippe F. Smet, Dirk Poelman, Luminescence of ytterbium in CaS and SrS, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • F. Tárkányi, F. Ditrói, S. Takács, A. Hermanne, A.V. Ignatyuk, New data on activation cross section for deuteron induced reactions on ytterbium up to 50 MeV, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 336, 1 October 2014
  • Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Hiromitsu Haba, Naohiko Otuka, Ahmed Rufa’i Usman, Investigation of (d,x) nuclear reactions on natural ytterbium up to 24 MeV, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 335, 15 September 2014
  • Kutloano E. Sekhosana, Tebello Nyokong, Synthesis of ytterbium bisphthalocyanines: Photophysicochemical properties and nonlinear absorption behavior, Optical Materials, Available online 14 June 2014
  • Shuai CHEN, Zhengtang LIU, Liping FENG, Xingsen CHE, Xiaoru ZHAO, Effect of ytterbium inclusion in hafnium oxide on the structural and electrical properties of the high-k gate dielectric, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 6, June 2014
  • N.Q. Tuan, A.M.P. Pinto, H. Puga, L.A. Rocha, J. Barbosa, Effects of substituting ytterbium for scandium on the microstructure and age-hardening behaviour of Al–Sc alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 601, 17 April 2014
  • Zhaohe Gao, Hongying Li, Jiaojiao Liu, Xiaochao Lu, Yangxun Ou, Effects of Ytterbium and Zirconium on precipitation evolution and coarsening resistance in aluminum during isothermal aging, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 592, 15 April 2014
  • Pingxue Li, Ziqiang Zhao, Junjie Chi, Chun Yang, Guangju Zhang, Haowei Hu, Yifei Yao, Yao Li, Xiongfei Wang, Guoshun Zhong, Hong Zhao, Dongsheng Jiang, Tunable picosecond SESAM mode-locking ytterbium-doped double-clad LMA PCF oscillator, Optics Communications, Volume 317, 15 April 2014
  • Sebastian C. Peter, Udumula Subbarao, Sumanta Sarkar, G. Vaitheeswaran, Axel Svane, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Crystal structure of Yb2CuGe6 and Yb3Cu4Ge4 and the valency of ytterbium, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 589, 15 March 2014
  • M. Ivanov, Yu. Kopylov, V. Kravchenko, Jiang LI, A. Medvedev, Yubai PAN, Highly transparent ytterbium doped yttrium lanthanum oxide ceramics, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 3, March 2014
  • P. Kumar, V.K. Saini, G.S. Purbia, O. Prakash, S.K. Dixit, S.V. Nakhe, Studies on inverse optogalvanic and Penning ionization effects in ytterbium and neon transitions in Yb-Ne hollow cathode lamp, Optics Communications, Volume 313, 15 February 2014
  • Weizuo Li, Jingya Li, Hongfeng Li, Pengfei Yan, Guangfeng Hou, Guangming Li, NIR luminescence of 2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-1-indone (TFI) neodymium and ytterbium complexes, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 146, February 2014
  • Junqing Zhao, Yonggang Wang, Peiguang Yan, Shuangchen Ruan, Yuen Tsang, Gelin Zhang, Huiquan Li, An Ytterbium-doped fiber laser with dark and Q-switched pulse generation using graphene-oxide as saturable absorber, Optics Communications, Volume 312, 1 February 2014
  • A. Béjaoui, K. Horchani-Naifer, S. Hraiech, M. Férid, Optical properties of lutetium diphosphates powders doped by ytterbium, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 2, December 2013
  • Sergey P. Babailov, Eugeny N. Zapolotsky, Eduard S. Fomin, Molecular structure and paramagnetic properties of bis-diisobutyl-dithiophosphinate complexes of neodymium(III), europium(III) and ytterbium(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline using NMR, Polyhedron, Volume 65, 28 November 2013
  • Mohamad Hassan Amin, James Tardio, Suresh K. Bhargava, An investigation on the role of ytterbium in ytterbium promoted ?-alumina-supported nickel catalysts for dry reforming of methane, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 38, Issue 33, 4 November 2013
  • Monika Michálková, Zoltán Lencéš, Martin Michálek, Peter Kocher, Jakob Kuebler, Pavol Šajgalík, Improvement of electrical conductivity of silicon nitride/carbon nano-fibers composite using magnesium silicon nitride and ytterbium oxide as sintering additives, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 33, Issues 13–14, November 2013
  • Y.Y. Wang, W. Zhao, G. Li, Y.C. Li, R.P. Liu, Pressure-induced polyamorphic transitions in ytterbium-based bulk metallic glasses, Materials Letters, Volume 110, 1 November 2013
  • V. Serbezov, S. Sotirov, K. Benkhouja, A. Zawadzka, B. Sahraoui, Investigation of superfast deposition of metal oxide and Diamond-Like Carbon thin films by nanosecond Ytterbium (Yb+) fiber laser, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 1, November 2013
  • Enrique Gómez Pablo, Marcos Plata Sánchez, Serguei Stepanov, Slow and fast light via two-wave mixing in ytterbium-doped fiber at 1064 nm, Optics Communications, Volume 300, 15 July 2013

Ytterbium Isotopes


Naturally occurring ytterbium has 7 stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
168Yb 167.933897 Observationally Stable 0+
170Yb 169.9347618 Observationally Stable 0+
171Yb 170.9363258 Observationally Stable 1/2-
172Yb 171.9363815 Observationally Stable 0+
173Yb 172.9382108 Observationally Stable 5/2-
174Yb 173.9388621 Observationally Stable 0+
166Yb 175.9425717 Observationally Stable 0+