Ytterbium Elemental Symbol
Ytterbium



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Ytterbium Ytterbium Itterbio Itérbio Yterbio Ytterbium

Elemental YtterbiumYtterbium has 2 valency states, +2 and +3. Ytterbium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Ytterbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f14 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-64-4. ytterbium has a silvery-white color.The Ytterbium atom has a radius of 194 pm and it's Van der Waals radius is unknown. On the periodic table, Ytterbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Ytterbium is found in monazite sand as well as the ores euxenite and xenotime. Ytterbium was first discovered by Jean de Marignac in 1878. The name Ytterbium originates after the name for the Swedish village of Ytterby.

Ytterbium is being applied to numerous fiber amplifier and fiber optic technologies and in various lasing applications. It has a single dominant absorption band at 985 in the infra-red making it useful in silicon photocells to directly convert radiant energy to electricity. Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistance when subjected to very high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges for monitoring ground deformations from earthquakes and nuclear explosions. It is also used in thermal barrier system bond coatings on nickel, iron and other transitional metal alloy substrates. Ytterbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Ytterbium (Yb) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Ytterbium Oxide (Yb2O3) PowderYtterbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Ytterbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Ytterbium is considered to be fairly toxic. Safety data for Ytterbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Ytterbium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Yb Melting Point: 824 oC, 1515.2 oF, 1097.15 K
Atomic Number: 70 Boiling Point: 1196 oC, 2184.8 oF, 1469.15 K
Atomic Weight: 173.04 Density: 6570 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.21 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0346 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 38 K-Cal/gm atom at 1194 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.20 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 70 Thermal Conductivity: 0.349 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 70 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (β, poly) 26.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 103 Electrical Resistivity: 29.0 microhm-cm @ 25 °C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f146s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings 
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: 66 MPa
Covalent Radius: 187±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.74 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 242 pm Young's Modulus: (β form) 23.9 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (β form) 9.9 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (β form) 30.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: (β form) 0.207
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 603.44 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 206 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1174.82 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 343 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2416.97 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1590 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-64-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22428 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23992 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011286 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.01 ppb
EC Number: 231-173-2 Discovered By: Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1878
SMILES Identifier: [Yb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Yb Other Names: Itterbio, Itérbio, Yterbio
InChI Key: NAWDYIZEMPQZHO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Ytterbium


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228-H302-H312-H315-H319-H332-H335
Hazard Codes F,Xn
Risk Codes 11-20/21/22
Safety Precautions 16-33-36
RTECS Number ZG1925000
Transport Information UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Flame-Flammables  

Ytterbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Ytterbium

  • Frequency stabilization of a 369 nm diode laser by nonlinear spectroscopy of Ytterbium ions in a discharge. Lee MW, Jarratt MC, Marciniak C, Biercuk MJ. Opt Express. 2014.
  • Ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter with a 360° tunable phase shift based on an erbium-ytterbium co-doped linearly chirped FBG. Liu W, Yao J. Opt Lett. 2014.
  • Ytterbium(III) Porpholactones: ß-Lactonization of Porphyrin Ligands Enhances Sensitization Efficiency of Lanthanide Near-Infrared Luminescence. Ke XS, Yang BY, Cheng X, Chan SL, Zhang JL. Chemistry. 2014 Mar.
  • Low noise single-frequency single-polarization ytterbium-doped phosphate fiber laser at 1083 nm. Xu S, Li C, Zhang W, Mo S, Yang C, Wei X, Feng Z, Qian Q, Shen S, Peng M, Zhang Q, Yang Z. Opt Lett.
  • Reversible Switching of Coordination Mode of ansa bis(Amidinate) Ligand in Ytterbium Complexes Driven by Oxidation State of the Metal Atom. Tolpygin AO, Cherkasov AV, Fukin GK, Trifonov AA. Inorg Chem. 2014 Jan.
  • Highly Selective and Responsive Visible to Near-IR Ytterbium Emissive Probe for Monitoring Mercury(II). Zhang T, Chan CF, Lan R, Wong WK, Wong KL. Chemistry. 2014 Jan.
  • 8-Quinolinolate complexes of yttrium and ytterbium: molecular arrangement and fragmentation under laser impact. Baranov EV, Fukin GK, Balashova TV, Pushkarev AP, Grishin ID, Bochkarev MN. Dalton Trans.
  • Divalent Heteroleptic Ytterbium Complexes - Effective Catalysts for Intermolecular Styrene Hydrophosphination and Hydroamination. Basalov IV, Rosca SC, Lyubov DM, Selikhov AN, Fukin GK, Sarazin Y, Carpentier JF, Trifonov AA. Inorg Chem. 2014 Jan
  • New [ONOO]-Type Amine Bis(phenolate) Ytterbium(II) and -(III) Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalysis for Highly Heteroselective Polymerization of rac-Lactide. Yang S, Nie K, Zhang Y, Xue M, Yao Y, Shen Q. Inorg Chem. 2013 Dec.
  • Stable, continuous-wave, ytterbium-fiber-based single-pass ultraviolet source using BiB3O6.. - Kumar SC, Devi K, Ebrahim-Zadeh M. Opt Lett. 2013 Dec.
  • 8-Quinolinolate complexes of yttrium and ytterbium: molecular arrangement and fragmentation under laser impact.
  • 8-Quinolinolate complexes of yttrium and ytterbium: molecular arrangement and fragmentation under laser impact. Baranov EV, Fukin GK, Balashova TV, Pushkarev AP, Grishin ID, Bochkarev MN. Dalton Trans. 2013 Nov.
  • Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric determination of the complex vapor composition of samarium, europium, and ytterbium bromides. Sergeev DN, Butman MF, Motalov VB, Kudin LS, Krämer KW. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2013 Aug.
  • The dawn of computer-assisted robotic osteotomy with ytterbium-doped fiber laser. Sotsuka Y, Nishimoto S, Tsumano T, Kawai K, Ishise H, Kakibuchi M, Shimokita R, Yamauchi T, Okihara SI. Lasers Med Sci. 2013 Nov.
  • Arc fusion splicing effects in large-mode-area single-mode ytterbium-doped fibers. Feng T, Jenkins MH, Yan F, Gaylord TK. Appl Opt. 2013 Nov.
  • Lifetime reduction due to photodarkening phenomenon in ytterbium-doped fibers and rate equation term. Piccoli R, Mechin D, Robin T, Taccheo S. Opt Lett.
  • A series of tetrathiafulvalene-based lanthanide complexes displaying either single molecule magnet or luminescence-direct magnetic and photo-physical correlations in the ytterbium ogue. Pointillart F, Le Guennic B, Cauchy T, Golhen S, Cador O, Maury O, Ouahab L. Inorg Chem. 2013.
  • Enantioselective synthesis of 3-hydroxy oxindoles by ytterbium-catalysed decarboxylative addition of ß-ketoacids to isatins. Duan Z, Han J, Qian P, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Pan Y. Org Biomol Chem. 2013 Oct.
  • Structure and NIR-luminescence of ytterbium(iii) beta-diketonate complexes with 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline ancillary ligand: assessment of chain length and fluorination impact. Martín-Ramos P, Pereira da Silva PS, Lavín V, Martín IR, Lahoz F, Chamorro-Posada P, Ramos Silva M, Martín-Gil J. Dalton Trans.
  • Baranov EV, Fukin GK, Balashova TV, Pushkarev AP, Grishin ID, Bochkarev MN. Dalton Trans. 2013.

Ytterbium Isotopes


Naturally occurring ytterbium has 7 stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
168Yb 167.933897 Observationally Stable 0+
170Yb 169.9347618 Observationally Stable 0+
171Yb 170.9363258 Observationally Stable 1/2-
172Yb 171.9363815 Observationally Stable 0+
173Yb 172.9382108 Observationally Stable 5/2-
174Yb 173.9388621 Observationally Stable 0+
166Yb 175.9425717 Observationally Stable 0+