Yttrium Elemental Symbol
Yttrium





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Yttrium Yttrium Ittrio Itrio Ytrio Yttrium

Yttrium(Y) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolYttrium is a Block D, Group 3, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of yttrium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The yttrium atom has a radius of 177.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Yttrium Bohr ModelIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-65-5, Yttrium has a silvery white appearance. Yttrium has the highest thermo-dynamic affinity for oxygen of any element. Elemental Yttrium This characteristic is the basis for many of its applications. Yttrium is not found in nature as a free element and is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals. While not part of the rare earth series, it resembles the heavy rare earths which are sometimes referred to as the "yttrics" for this reason. Another unique characteristic derives from its ability to form crystals with useful properties. Yttrium was first discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794. The name yttrium originated from a Swedish village near Vaxholm called Yttbery where it was discovered.

Yttrium's most important use is in making phosphors which are used in CRT displays and in LEDs. Yttrium is also used in the production of superconductors, electrodes, electrolytes, electronic filters, and lasers. Yttria stabilized zirconium oxide is used in high temperature applications, such as in thermal plasma sprays to protect aerospace high temperature surfaces. High Purity (99.999%) Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) PowderCrystals of the yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) variety are essential to microwave communication equipment and yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) crystals are utilized along with neodymium in a number of laser applications. High Purity (99.999%) Yttrium (Y) Sputtering TargetYttrium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Yttrium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Yttrium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Insoluble compounds of Yttrium are non-toxic, although water soluble compounds are somewhat toxic. Safety data for Yttrium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Yttrium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Y Melting Point: 1799 K, 1526 °C, 2779 °F
Atomic Number: 39 Boiling Point: 3609 K, 3336 °C, 6037 °F
Atomic Weight: 88.90585 Density: 4.472 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 4.24 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 3, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.068 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 365 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 11.42 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 39 Thermal Conductivity: 17.2 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 39 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 10.6 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 50 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t.) (α, poly) 596 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d15s2 Electronegativity: 1.3 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 180 pm Tensile Strength: 67 MPa
Covalent Radius: 190±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.53 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200 pm Young's Modulus: 63.5 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 25.6 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 41.2 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.243
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 599.86 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1180.99 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 589 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 1979.89 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3300 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-65-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22429 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23993 Abundance in universe, by weight: 7 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011468 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.1 ppb
EC Number: 231-174-8 Discovered By: Johan Gadolin
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1794
SMILES Identifier: [Y]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Y Other Names: Ittrio, Itrio
InChI Key: VWQVUPCCIRVNHF-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Yttrium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Barium Yttrium Tungsten Oxide
Bismuth Oxide - Yttria Stabilized
Lanthanum Strontium Manganite - Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (LSM-YSZ)
Lanthanum Ytttrium Germanate
Nickel Oxide - YSZ Anode Paste
Nickel Oxide - YSZ Anode Tape
Nickel Oxide/Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Anode Paste
Sodium Yttrium Fluoride, Ytterbium And Erbium Doped
Sodium Yttrium Fluoride, Ytterbium And Thulium Doped
Sodium Yttrium Oxyfluoride, Ytterbium And Erbium Doped
YSZ Granule
YSZ Lump
Yttria Stabilized Bismuth Oxide (YBO)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (12 Mol. %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (8 Mol %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (6 Mol. %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (5 Mol. %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Grinding Beads
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Paste
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Sheet
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Spheres
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Tape
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Tube
Yttrium Acetate (Hydrate)
Yttrium Acetate Solution
Yttrium Acetate Tetrahydrate
Yttrium Aluminide
Yttrium Aluminum Borate
Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide
Yttrium Borate
Yttrium Boride
Yttrium Bromide
Yttrium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Yttrium Carbide
Yttrium Carbonate
Yttrium Chloride
Yttrium Chloride Anhydrous, Powder
Yttrium Chloride Anhydrous, Beads
Yttrium Chloride Solution
Yttrium-doped Barium Cerate
Yttrium Ferrite
Yttrium Fluoride
Yttrium Fluoride Granules
Yttrium Fluoride Pieces
Yttrium Hydride YH2
Yttrium Hydride YH3
Yttrium Iodide
Yttrium Iodide, Ultra Dry
Yttrium Lithium Fluoride
Yttrium Nitrate (Hexahydrate)
Yttrium Nitrate Solution
Yttrium(III) Nitrate Tetrahydrate
Yttrium Nitride
Yttrium Oxide
Yttrium Perchlorate Solution
Yttrium Phosphate
Yttrium Silicide
Yttrium Sulfate
Yttrium Sulfate Solution
Yttrium Vanadate
Yttrium Zirconium Oxide
Zirconium(IV) Oxide, Yttria stabilized Pellets
Zirconium(IV) Oxide, Yttria stabilized Submicron Powder
Zirconium(IV) Oxide, Yttria Stabilized
Zirconium Oxide-Yttrium Oxide


Oxide Forms

Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Particles
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Pellets
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Pieces
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Powder
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Shot
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Tablets
Yttrium Oxide Nanopowder
Yttrium Oxide Particles
Yttrium Oxide Pellets
Yttrium Oxide Pieces
Yttrium Oxide Powder
Yttrium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Yttrium Oxide Sheet
Yttrium Oxide Shot
Yttrium Oxide Sputtering Target
Yttrium Oxide Tablets
Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Cerium Oxide Stabilized with Yttrium Oxide
Chromium, Erbium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet
(Green) Glued Crystals
Holmium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride
LYSO Scintillation Crystal
Neodymium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride
Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
Yb:YVO4
YLaSc Crystal, Nonlinear
Yttria Doped Ceria
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Ce-doped (Ce:YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Cr-doped (Cr4+:YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Cr-Tm-Ho-doped (CTH:YAG - Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Nd-doped (Nd:YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Tm-doped (Tm:YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, V-doped (V3+:YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Yb-doped (Yb:YAG)
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide
Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite, Ce-doped (Ce:YAP)
Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite, Er-doped (Er:YAP)
Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite, Tm-doped (Tm:YAP)
Yttrium Antimonide
Yttrium Arsenide
Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG)
Yttrium Oxide, Europium Doped
Yttrium Phosphide
Yttrium Selenide
Yttrium Sulfide
Yttrium Telluride


Nanomaterials

Cerium Oxide, Yttria doped Nanopowder
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles
Yttrium Aluminate Nanopowder
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles
Yttrium Europium Oxide Nanoparticles
Yttrium Iron Oxide Nanopowder
Yttrium Nanofoil
Yttrium Nanoparticles
Yttrium Nanoprisms
Yttrium Nanorods
Yttrium Oxide Nanopowder
Zirconium(IV) Oxide, Yttria stabilized Nanopowder


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Yttrium Sputtering Target
Barium Cerium Yttrium Zirconate Sputtering Target
Magnesium Neodymium Zirconium Yttrium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Yttrium Sputtering Target
Titanium Aluminum Yttrium Sputtering Target
Yttria Doped Ceria Sputtering Target
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Sputtering Target
Yttrium Barium Cuprate Sputtering Target
Yttrium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Yttrium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Yttrium Oxide Sputtering Target
Yttrium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Yttrium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Yttrium Selenide Sputtering Target
Yttrium Sputtering Target
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Sputtering Target
Yttrium Telluride Sputtering Target
Yttrium Titanium Sputtering Target
Yttrium Zirconium Magnesium Sputtering Target
Yttrium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Yttrium Sputtering Target


Organometallic Compounds

Tris(butylcyclopentadienyl)yttrium(III)
Tris(cyclopentadienyl)yttrium(III)
Tris[N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)amide]yttrium
Yttrium(III) 2-Ethylhexanoate
Yttrium 2-Ethylhexanoate Solution
Yttrium(III) 2-Methoxyethoxide Solution
Yttrium Acetylacetonate
Yttrium(III) Butoxide Solution
Yttrium(III) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Dihydrate
Yttrium Isopropoxide Oxide
Yttrium(III) Isopropoxide Solution
Yttrium Trifluoroacetate Hydrate
Yttrium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Yttrium Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate)
Yttrium(III) Tris(isopropoxide)


Recent Research & Development for Yttrium

  • Antifungal effects of a 1444-nm neodymium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser on onychomycosis: a pilot study. Choi MJ, Zheng Z, Goo B, Cho SB. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014 Aug.
  • Dynamic photopatterning of cells in situ by Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium ortho-vanadate laser. Deka G, Okano K, Kao FJ. J Biomed Opt. 2014 | first author:Deka G.
  • Capillary microextraction combined with fluorinating assisted electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the determination of trace lanthanum, europium, dysprosium and yttrium in human hair. Wu S, Hu C, He M, Chen B, Hu B. Talanta. 2013 4 | first author:Wu S
  • Yttrium-90 Microsphere-selective Internal Radiation Therapy With Chemotherapy (Chemo-SIRT) for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: An In Vivo Double-Arm-Controlled Phase II Trial. Gulec SA, Pennington K, Wheeler J, Barot TC, Suthar RR, Hall M, Schwartzentruber D. Am J Clin Oncol. 2013 | first author:Gulec SA
  • Safety of repeated yttrium-90 radioembolization. Lam MG, Louie JD, Iagaru AH, Goris ML, Sze DY. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2013 create date:2013/01/29 | first author:Lam MG
  • Treatment of onychomycosis using a submillisecond 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Carney C, Cantrell W, Warner J, Elewski B. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 | first author:Carney C
  • A case of mottled hypopigmentation after low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser therapy. Ryu HJ, Kim J. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2013 create date:2013/03/08 | first author:Ryu HJ
  • 8-Quinolinolate complexes of yttrium and ytterbium: molecular arrangement and fragmentation under laser impact. Baranov EV, Fukin GK, Balashova TV, Pushkarev AP, Grishin ID, Bochkarev MN. Dalton Trans. 2013 | first author:Baranov EV
  • Selective liquid chromatographic separation of yttrium from heavier rare earth elements using acetic acid as a novel eluent. Kifle D, Wibetoe G. J Chromatogr A. 2013 create date:2013/08/13 | first author:Kifle D
  • EBSD and EDX Analyses of a Multiphase Glass-Ceramic Obtained by Crystallizing an Yttrium Aluminosilicate Glass. Keshavarzi A, Wisniewski W, Rassel C. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 create date:2013/07/16 | first author:Keshavarzi A.
  • Initial outcome after selective intraarterial radionuclide therapy with yttrium-90 microspheres as salvage therapy for unresectable metastatic liver disease. Turkmen C, Ucar A, Poyanli A, Vatankulu B, Ozkan G, Basaran M, Serin K, Sanli Y, Adalet I. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013 create date:2013/05/08 | first author:Turkmen C.
  • Comparative effectiveness of nonpurpuragenic 595-nm pulsed dye laser and microsecond 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser for treatment of diffuse facial erythema: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Alam M, Voravutinon N, Warycha M, Whiting D, Nodzenski M, Yoo S, West DP, Veledar E, Poon E. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 create date:2013/05/22 | first author:Alam M
  • Confocal microscopy to guide Erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ablation of basal cell carcinoma: an ex vivo feasibility study. Sierra H, Larson BA, Chen CS, Rajadhyaksha M. J Biomed Opt. 2013 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Sierra H
  • Neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser versus pulsed dye laser in erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea: comparison of clinical efficacy and effect on cutaneous substance (P) expression. Salem SA, Abdel Fattah NS, Tantawy SM, El-Badawy NM, Abd El-Aziz YA. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2013 create date:2013/09/03 | first author:Salem SA
  • Histological evaluation of dermal tissue remodeling with the 1444-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in in vivo model. Kim JH, Min KH, Heo CY, Baek RM, Park HJ, Youn SW, Kim EH. J Dermatol. 2013 create date:2013/07/10 | first author:Kim JH
  • Trivalent scandium, yttrium and lanthanide complexes with thia-oxa and selena-oxa macrocycles and crown ether coordination. Champion MJ, Farina P, Levason W, Reid G. Dalton Trans. 2013 create date:2013/07/25 | first author:Champion MJ
  • The selective antenna effect of tungstate anions for Tb-doped layered yttrium hydroxynitrate. Lee K, Lee BI, Byeon SH. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 | first author:Lee K
  • Re: 120-W 2-µm thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet vapoenucleation of the prostate: 12-month follow-up. Kaplan SA. J Urol. 2013 | first author:Kaplan SA
  • Positron emission tomography/CT after yttrium-90 radioembolization: current and future applications. Gates VL, Salem R, Lewandowski RJ. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013 | first author:Gates VL
  • Comparison of positron emission tomography and bremsstrahlung imaging to detect particle distribution in patients undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolization for large hepatocellular carcinomas or associated portal vein thrombosis. Padia SA, Alessio A, Kwan SW, Lewis DH, Vaidya S, Minoshima S. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013 | first author:Padia SA

Yttrium Isotopes


Yttrium has one stable isotope: 89Y

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
89Y 88.9058483 Stable 1/2-