SECTION 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
Aluminum phosphide - reacts with water to produce phosphine gas (PH3)
Dangerous when wet
Fatal if swallowed or inhaled
When sealed aluminum foil pouches are opened contact with the moisture in the air will cause phosphine gas to be released
Phosphine is spontaneously flammable in air.
Appearance Greenish, Yellow. Physical State Solid. Odor Garlic like. Pure phosphine gas is odorless but a garlic odor might be detected due to a contaminant. Since odor may not be detected under certain circumstances, the absence of a garlic odor does not mean that phosphine gas is absent
Potential Health Effects
- Skin contact
Phosphine gas is odorless. Accidental ingestion of aluminum phosphide or inhalation of
phosphine gas have been reported to produce CNS depression, pulmonary edema,
respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac dysrhythmias, seizures, liver injury and renal failure.
Irritating to eyes.
Irritating to skin
Fatal if inhaled - Do not breathe mist/vapors.
Fatal if swallowed - Do not eat, drink, or smoke while handling this product.
SECTION 3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES
Skin Contact Brush or shake off material. Wash contaminated skin with soapy water in a well
Call poison control center or doctor for treatment advice.
Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently with water for 15 - 20 minutes.
Remove contact lenses, if present, after 5 minutes, then continue rinsing eye.
Inhalation If breathing is irregular or stopped, administer artificial respiration
May cause allergic respiratory reaction
Call a physician or poison control center immediately
SECTION 5. FIREFIGHTING MEASURES
Aluminum phosphide - is not flammable. However, it reacts readily with water to produce hydrogen phosphide (phosphine, PH3) gas which may ignite spontaneously in air concentrations above the LEL of 1.8% v/v.
Extnguishing Media Carbon dioxide (CO2) Dry powder Dry chemical Sand
Autoignition Temperature Not available
Fire/Explosion Hazard Alphos = Hydrogen phosphide (Phosphine)/air mixtures at concentrations above the lower flammable limit may ignite spontaneously. Ignition of high concentrations of hydrogen phosphide can produce a very energetic reaction. Explosions can occur under these conditions and may cause personal injury.
Never allow the build- up of hydrogen phosphide to exceed explosive concentrations. Containers of metal phosphides should be opened in open air and never in a flammable atmosphere. Do not confine spent or partially spent dust from metal phosphide fumigants as slow release of the hydrogen phosphide from these materials may reuslt in formation of an explosive atmosphere. Spontaneous ignition may occur if large quantities of aluminum phosphide are piled in contact with liquid water. Fires containing hydrogen phosphide or metal phosphides will produce phosphoric acid by the following reaction: 2PH3 +4O2 = H2O + P2O5 = 2H3PO4
SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
Remove all sources of ignition. Ensure adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Use personal protective equipment. An accidental spill/release of material may produce high levels of gas. A NIOSH/MSHA approved full face gas mask with phosphine cartridge of SCBA must be employed during wet deactivation of partially spent material. Wear protective gloves and
Do not flush into surface water or sanitary sewer system. Should not be released into the environment.
Methods for Clean-up
Do not use water at any time during clean-up. Wear gloves when handling aluminum phsophide. Damaged aluminum foil pouches should be transferred to a sound dry metal cotainer and immediately seal and properly label as aluminum phosphide. Follow all label instructions for disposal of residual material and/or empty containers.
SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE
Use of this product is STRICTLY PROHIBITED on single and multifamily residential properties and nursing homes, schools (except athletic fields) daycare facilities and hospitals. Keep out of reach of children. Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Remove all sources of ignition. Wear personal protective equipment. It is recommended that aluminum foil pouch be opened in air or near a fan, which exhausts outside immediately. Never open in a flammable atmosphere as the product may, although rare, flash. When opening, point pouch away from the face and body. These precautions will reduce the applications potential for exposure to hydrogen phosphide (phosphine) gas. Do not expose product to atmospheric moisture any longer than is necessary.
Store in cool/well-ventilated place. Keep away from heat and sources of ignition.
Do not transport or store above 38 C/100 F. Do not store in buildings where humans or domestic animals reside.
SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION
Investigate engineering techniques to reduce exposures. Local mechanical exhaust
ventilation is preferred. Consult ACGIH ventilation manual or NFPA Standard 91 for design
of exhaust systems. Use equipment/monitors for the detection of phosphine gas.
Personal Protective Equipment
Where there is potential for eye contact have eye flushing equipment available. Eye contact
should be avoided through the use of chemical safety glasses, goggles, or a faceshield
selected in regard to exposure potential.
Wear protective gloves/clothing.
A NIOSH/MESA approved full face mask with approved canister for phosphine may be
employed for concentrations up to 15 ppm. At concentrations above that level, or when
concentration is unknown, NIOSH/MESA approved SCBA or equivalent must be worn.
SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Appearance Greenish Yellow
Garlic like Pure phosphine gas is odorless but a garlic odor
might be detected due to a contaminant. Since odor may
not be detected under certain circumstances, the absence of a
garlic odor does not mean that phosphine gas is absent.
Physical State: Solid
VOC Content: Not available
SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
Stability This product is stable to most chemical reactions except for hydrolysis. A component of this product, aluminum phosphide, reacts with moisture from the air, water, acids and many other liquids to produce toxic and flammable hydrogen phosphine gas. Pure hydrogen phosphide (phosphine) gas is practically insoluble in water, fats and oils and is stable at normal fumigation temperatures.
SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Aluminum phosphide -
Acute oral LD50 = 11.5 mg/kg
Acute dermal LD50 = >5,000 mg/kg (1 hr exposure)
Sensitization = Not a sensitizer Hydrogen phosphide (phosphine) gas -
Inhalation = LC50 190 ppm (1 hour)
Chronic effects = Not expected to produce target organ effects
Mutagenicity = No data
Carcinogenicity = Not classified as a carcinogen by IARC, OSHA, or NTP
Reproductive and Developmental Effects = Not expected to produce reproductive or
developmental effects. Hydrogen phosphide (phosphine) gas -
Chronic effects = In a 2-year study, rats were exposed to 48-90 g/m3 of feed and no overt
systemic toxicity was noted.
Mutagenicity = Increased frequency of cells with structural chromosomal aberrations noted
in an invitro cytogenetic assay with Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Carcinogenicity = Not classified as a carcinogen by IARC, OSHA or NTP
Reproductive and developmental effects = Not expected to product reproductive or
SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Highly toxic to wildlife. Non-target organisms exposed to phosphine gas in burrows will be killed.
SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
Waste Disposal Method
Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous. Improper disposal of excess pesticide or rinsate is a violation of Federal law. If the wastes cannot be disposed of by use or according to label instructions, contact your State Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous Waste representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for guidance. Follow label for proper disposal instructions.
SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION
Proper Shipping Name: Aluminum phosphide
Hazard Class 4.3
Subsidiary Class: 6.1
UN-No: UN 1397
Packing Group: PGI
SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION
SARA 311/312 Hazardous Categorization
20859-73-8 ( 77.5 )
Chronic Health Hazard No
Component CERCLA EHS RQs
20859-73-8 ( 77.5 )
Acute Health Hazard Yes
Component RCRA - D Series Wastes RCRA - P Series Wastes RCRA - U Series Wastes
Fire Hazard Yes
20859-73-8 ( 77.5 )
Sudden Release of Pressure Hazard
Component FIFRA - Restricted Use FIFRA - Pesticide
FIFRA - Listing of
California Pesticides -
Reactive Hazard Yes