See more Cerium products. Cerium (atomic symbol: Ce, atomic number: 58) is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element with an atomic weight of 140.116. The number of electrons in each of cerium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f2 6s2. The cerium atom has a radius of 182.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 235 pm. In its elemental form, cerium has a silvery white appearance. Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth metals. It is characterized chemically by having two valence states, the +3 cerous and +4 ceric states. The ceric state is the only non-trivalent rare earth ion stable in aqueous solutions. It is, therefore, strongly acidic and moderately toxic. It is also a strong oxidizer. The cerous state closely resembles the other trivalent rare earths. Cerium is found in the minerals allanite, bastnasite, hydroxylbastnasite, monazite, rhabdophane, synchysite and zircon. Cerium was discovered by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, and Wilh elm Hisinger in 1803 and first isolated by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1839. The element was named after the asteroid Ceres.
See more Lutetium products. Lutetium (atomic symbol: Lu, atomic number: 71) is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element with an atomic weight of 174.9668. The number of electrons in each of Lutetium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2] and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f15 5d1 6s2. In its elemental form, lutetium has a silvery-white appearance. The lutetium atom has a radius of 174 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 221 pm. Lutetium was discovered and first isolated by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach and Charles James in 1906, all independently of each other. Urbain was awarded the naming honor because he published his findings first. Lutetium is the last member of the rare earth series. Unlike most rare earths it lacks a magnetic moment. It has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth and it is perhaps the least naturally abundant of the lanthanides. The most common source of commercially produced lutetium is the mineral monazite. The name lutetium originates from the Latin word Lutetia, meaning Paris. Lutetium is found with almost all other rare earth metals, but it never occurs naturally by itself.
See more Yttrium products. Yttrium (atomic symbol: Y, atomic number: 39) is a Block D, Group 3, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 88.90585. The number of electrons in each of yttrium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 9, 2] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The yttrium atom has a radius of 180 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 219 pm. Yttrium was discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794 and first isolated by Carl Gustav Mosander in 1840. In its elemental form, Yttrium has a silvery white metallic appearance. Yttrium has the highest thermodynamic affinity for oxygen of any element. Yttrium is not found in nature as a free element and is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals. While not part of the rare earth series, it resembles the heavy rare earths which are sometimes referred to as the "yttrics" for this reason. Another unique characteristic derives from its ability to form crystals with useful properties. The name yttrium originated from a Swedish village near Vaxholm called Yttbery where it was discovered.
See more Silicon products. Silicon (atomic symbol: Si, atomic number: 14) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 3 element with an atomic weight of 28.085. The number of electrons in each of Silicon's shells is 2, 8, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The silicon atom has a radius of 111 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 210 pm. Silicon was discovered and first isolated by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1823. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust, by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. The metalloid is rarely found in pure crystal form and is usually produced from the iron-silicon alloy ferrosilicon. Silica (or silicon dioxide), as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, one of the most inexpensive of materials with excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties. Ultra high purity silicon can be doped with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic to produce silicon for use in transistors, solar cells, rectifiers, and other solid-state devices which are used extensively in the electronics industry.The name Silicon originates from the Latin word silex which means flint or hard stone.