See more Cobalt products. Cobalt (atomic symbol: Co, atomic number: 27) is a Block D, Group 9, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 58.933195. The number of electrons in each of cobalt's shells is 2, 8, 15, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d7 4s2The cobalt atom has a radius of 125 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 192 pm. Cobalt was first discovered by George Brandt in 1732. In its elemental form, cobalt has a lustrous gray appearance. Cobalt is found in cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite ores. Cobalt produces brilliant blue pigments which have been used since ancient times to color paint and glass. Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal and is used primarily in the production of magnetic and high-strength superalloys. Co-60, a commercially important radioisotope, is useful as a radioactive tracer and gamma ray source. The origin of the word Cobalt comes from the German word "Kobalt" or "Kobold," which translates as "goblin," "elf" or "evil spirit." For more information on cobalt, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of cobalt products, visit the Cobalt element page.
See more Silicon products. Silicon (atomic symbol: Si, atomic number: 14) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 3 element with an atomic weight of 28.085. The number of electrons in each of Silicon's shells is 2, 8, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The silicon atom has a radius of 111 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 210 pm. Silicon was discovered and first isolated by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1823. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust, by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. The metalloid is rarely found in pure crystal form and is usually produced from the iron-silicon alloy ferrosilicon. Silica (or silicon dioxide), as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, one of the most inexpensive of materials with excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties. Ultra high purity silicon can be doped with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic to produce silicon for use in transistors, solar cells, rectifiers, and other solid-state devices which are used extensively in the electronics industry.The name Silicon originates from the Latin word silex which means flint or hard stone.
See more Molybdenum products. Molybdenum (atomic symbol: Mo, atomic number: 42) is a Block D, Group 6, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 95.96. The number of electrons in each of molybdenum's shells is [2, 8, 18, 13, 1] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d5 5s1. The molybdenum atom has a radius of 139 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 209 pm. In its elemental form, molybdenum has a gray metallic appearance. Molybdenum was discovered by Carl Wilhelm in 1778 and first isolated by Peter Jacob Hjelm in 1781. Molybdenum is the 54th most abundant element in the earth's crust. It has the third highest melting point of any element, exceeded only by tungsten and tantalum. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal, it is found in various oxidation states in minerals. The primary commercial source of molybdenum is molybdenite, although it is also recovered as a byproduct of copper and tungsten mining. The origin of the name Molybdenum comes from the Greek word molubdos meaning lead.
See more Iron products. Iron (atomic symbol: Fe, atomic number: 26) is a Block D, Group 8, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 55.845. The number of electrons in each of Iron's shells is 2, 8, 14, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d6 4s2. The iron atom has a radius of 126 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 194 pm. Iron was discovered by humans before 5000 BC. In its elemental form, iron has a lustrous grayish metallic appearance. Iron is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust and the most common element by mass forming the earth as a whole. Iron is rarely found as a free element, since it tends to oxidize easily; it is usually found in minerals such as magnetite, hematite, goethite, limonite, or siderite. Though pure iron is typically soft, the addition of carbon creates the alloy known as steel, which is significantly stronger.
See more Niobium products. Niobium (atomic symbol: Nb, atomic number: 41) is a Block D, Group 5, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 92.90638. The number of electrons in each of niobium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 12, 1 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d4 5s1. The niobium atom has a radius of 146 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 207 pm. Niobium was discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801 and first isolated by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864. In its elemental form, niobium has a gray metallic appearance. Niobium has the largest magnetic penetration depth of any element and is one of three elemental type-II superconductors (along with vanadium and technetium). Niobium is found in the minerals pyrochlore, its main commercial source, and columbite. The word Niobium originates from Niobe, daughter of mythical Greek king Tantalus.
See more Boron products. Boron (atomic symbol: B, atomic number: 5) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 2 element with an atomic weight of 10.81. The number of electrons in each of boron's shells is 2, 3 and its electron configuration is [He] 2s2 2p1. The boron atom has a radius of 90 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 192 pm. Boron was discovered by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard in 1808. It was first isolated by Humphry Davy, also in 1808. Boron is classified as a metalloid is not found naturally on earth. Along with carbon and nitrogen, boron is one of the few elements in the periodic table known to form stable compounds featuring triple bonds. Boron has an energy band gap of 1.50 to 1.56 eV, which is higher than that of either silicon or germanium. Boron is found in borates, borax, boric acid, colemanite, kernite, and ulexite.The name Boron originates from a combination of carbon and the Arabic word buraqu meaning borax.