See more Copper products. Copper (atomic symbol: Cu, atomic number: 29) is a Block D, Group 11, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 63.546. The number of electrons in each of copper's shells is 2, 8, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s1. The copper atom has a radius of 128 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 186 pm. Copper was first discovered by Early Man prior to 9000 BC. In its elemental form, copper has a red-orange metallic luster appearance. Of all pure metals, only silver has a higher electrical conductivity.The origin of the word copper comes from the Latin word 'cuprium' which translates as "metal of Cyprus." Cyprus, a Mediterranean island, was known as an ancient source of mined copper.
See more Gallium products. Gallium (atomic symbol: Ga, atomic number: 31) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 69.723.The number of electrons in each of Gallium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 3 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The gallium atom has a radius of 122.1 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 187 pm. Gallium was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1871. It was first discovered and isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875. In its elemental form, gallium has a silvery appearance. Gallium is one of three elements that occur naturally as a liquid at room temperature, the other two being mercury and cesium. Gallium does not exist as a free element in nature and is sourced commercially from bauxite and sphalerite. Currently, gallium is used in semiconductor devices for microelectronics and optics. The element name originates from the Latin word 'Gallia', the old name of France, and the word 'Gallus,' meaning rooster.
See more Indium products. Indium (atomic symbol: In, atomic number: 49) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 114.818. The number of electrons in each of indium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 18, 3] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1. The indium atom has a radius of 162.6 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 193 pm. Indium was discovered by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter in 1863. It is a relatively rare, extremely soft metal is a lustrous silvery gray and is both malleable and easily fusible. It has similar chemical properties to gallium such as a low melting point and the ability to wet glass. Fields such as optics and microelectronics that utilize semiconductor technology have wide uses for indium, especially in the form of Indiun Tin Oxide (ITO). Thin films of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) are used in high-performing solar cells. Indium's name is derived from the Latin word indicum, meaning violet.
See more Selenium products. Selenium (atomic symbol: Se, atomic number: 34) is a Block P, Group 16, Period 4 element with an atomic radius of 78.96. The number of electrons in each of Selenium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 6 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4. The selenium atom has a radius of 120 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 190 pm. Selenium is a non-metal with several allotropes: a black, vitreous form with an irregular crystal structure three red-colored forms with monoclinic crystal structures and a gray form with a hexagonal crystal structure, the most stable and dense form of the element. One of the mose common uses for selenium is in glass production the red tint that it lends to glass neutralizes green or yellow tints from impurities in the glass materials. Selenium was discovered and first isolated by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Johann Gottlieb Gahn in 1817. The origin of the name Selenium comes from the Greek word "Selênê," meaning moon.
See more Sulfur products. Sulfur (or Sulphur) (atomic symbol: S, atomic number: 16) is a Block P, Group 16, Period 3 element with an atomic radius of 32.066. The number of electrons in each of Sulfur's shells is 2, 8, 6 and its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p4. In its elemental form, sulfur has a light yellow appearance. The sulfur atom has a covalent radius of 105 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 180 pm. In nature, sulfur can be found in hot springs, meteorites, volcanoes, and as galena, gypsum, and epsom salts. Sulfur has been known since ancient times but was not accepted as an element until 1777, when Antoine Lavoisier helped to convince the scientific community that it was an element and not a compound.