Germanium Concentrate

CAS #

Ge

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SAFETY DATA TECHNICAL DATA
(2N) 99% Germanium Concentrate GE-E-02-CONC Pricing
(3N) 99.9% Germanium Concentrate GE-E-03-CONC Pricing
(4N) 99.99% Germanium Concentrate GE-E-04-CONC Pricing
(5N) 99.999% Germanium Concentrate GE-E-05-CONC Pricing

Properties

Molecular Weight 72.61
Appearance Black Lump
Melting Point 937.4 °C
Boiling Point 2830 °C
Density 5.323 g/cm3
Thermal Expansion

6.0 µm/(m·K)

Poisson Ratio 0.26
Vickers Hardness N/A
Young's Modulus 103 GPa
Tensile Strength N/A
Thermal Conductivity 0.602 W/cm/K @ 302.93 K
Electronegativity 1.8 Paulings
Specific Heat 0.077 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
Heat of Vaporization 68 K-cal/gm atom at 2830 °C
Heat of Fusion 8.3 Cal/gm mole

Health & Safety Information

Signal Word Warning
Hazard Statements H315-H319-H335
Hazard Codes Xi
Risk Codes 36/37/38
Safety Statements 26-36/39
RTECS Number LY5200000
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany 3

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SAFETY DATA SHEET

Date Accessed: 05/01/2016
Date Revised: 05/15/2015

SECTION 1. IDENTIFICATION

Product Name: Germanium Concentrate

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. GE-E-02-CONC, GE-E-03-CONC, GE-E-04-CONC, GE-E-05-CONC

CAS #: 7440-56-4

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


SECTION 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is not classified as hazardous to health or the environment according to the CLP regulation.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
Not applicable
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
No information known.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
HEALTH
FIRE
REACTIVITY



Health (acute effects) = 0
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 0
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT:
Not applicable.
vPvB:
Not applicable.


SECTION 3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-56-4 Germanium
Identification number(s):
EC number:
231-164-3


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Description of first aid measures
General information
No special measures required.
After inhalation
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing
If symptoms persist consult doctor.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 5. FIREFIGHTING MEASURES

Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Water
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
No special measures required


SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Do not allow to penetrate the ground/soil.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Handling
Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Storage
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Not required.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Additional information about design of technical systems:
No further data; see section 7.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
The product does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values
that have to be monitored at the workplace.
Additional information:
No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Not required.
Protection of hands:
Not required.
Penetration time of glove material (in minutes)
Not determined
Eye protection:
Safety glasses
Body protection:
Protective work clothing.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Appearance:
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silver-colored
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 937.2 °C (1719 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 2830 °C (5126 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous)
Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Not determined.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure at 20 °C (68 °F): 0 hPa
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 5.32 g/cm³ (44.395 lbs/gal)
Relative density
Not determined.
Vapor density
Not applicable.
Evaporation rate
Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Insoluble
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
Viscosity:
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Reactivity
No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
No information known.
Hazardous decomposition products:
Metal oxide fume


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for this substance.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
Eye irritation or corrosion:
No irritant effect.
Sensitization:
No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
No effects known.
Carcinogenicity:
No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
Reproductive toxicity:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:
No effects known.
Aspiration hazard:
No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains multiple dose toxicity
data for this substance.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.
Carcinogenic categories
OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration)
Substance is not listed.


SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Toxicity
Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT:
Not applicable.
vPvB:
Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Waste treatment methods
Recommendation
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Recommendation:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

UN-Number
DOT, ADN, IMDG, IATA
Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
DOT, ADN, IMDG, IATA
Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
DOT, ADR, ADN, IMDG, IATA
Class
Not applicable
Packing group
DOT, IMDG, IATA
Not applicable
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
DOT
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
No


SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Non-Domestic Substances List (NDSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH - Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


16. OTHER INFORMATION

Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

About

High purity germanium concentrateAmerican Elements offers Germanium Concentrate with a majority germanium base component. Preparation of germanium concentrate typically involves the removal of water from an germanium solution. Germanium concentrate is advantageous for transportation since it reduces weight and volume. A solution can be reproduced at the time of usage with the addition of a solvent. Concentrate is also useful in any application where high surface areas are desired such as water treatment and in fuel cell and solar applications. Nanoparticles also produce very high surface areas. Our standard Concentrate particle sizes average in the range of - 325 mesh, - 100 mesh, 10-50 microns and submicron (< 1 micron). We can also provide many materials in the nanoscale range. We also produce Germanium as rod, ingot, pieces, pellets, disc, granules, wire, and in compound forms, such as oxide. Other shapes are available by request.

Synonyms

N/A

Chemical Identifiers

Formula Ge
CAS 7440-56-4
Pubchem CID 6326954
MDL MFCD00085310
EC No. 231-164-3
Beilstein Registry No. N/A
SMILES [Ge]
InchI Identifier InChI=1S/Ge
InchI Key GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Packaging Specifications

Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Safety Data Sheet (SDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes, and 36,000 lb. tanker trucks.

Related Products & Element Information

See more Germanium products. Germanium (atomic symbol: Ge, atomic number: 32) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 72.63. Germanium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 211 pm. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. In its elemental form, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state. High Purity (99.999%) Germanium (Ge) MetalIt is commercially obtained from zinc ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. It is used extensively as a semiconductor in transitors, solar cells, and optical materials. Other applications include acting an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany," For more information on germanium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of germanium products, visit the Germanium element page.

Recent Research

All-Inorganic Germanium Nanocrystal Films by Cationic Ligand Exchange., Wheeler, Lance M., Nichols Asa W., Chernomordik Boris D., Anderson Nicholas C., Beard Matthew C., and Neale Nathan R. , Nano Lett, 2016 Mar 9, Volume 16, Issue 3, p.1949-54, (2016)

Flexible and free-standing ternary Cd2GeO4 nanowire/graphene oxide/CNT nanocomposite film with improved lithium-ion battery performance., Wang, Linlin, Zhang Xiaozhu, Shen Guozhen, Peng Xia, Zhang Min, and Xu Jingli , Nanotechnology, 2016 Mar 4, Volume 27, Issue 9, p.095602, (2016)

Direct Bandgap Light Emission from Strained Germanium Nanowires Coupled with High-Q Nanophotonic Cavities., Petykiewicz, Jan, Nam Donguk, Sukhdeo David S., Gupta Shashank, Buckley Sonia, Piggott Alexander Y., Vučković Jelena, and Saraswat Krishna C. , Nano Lett, 2016 Mar 2, (2016)

A Low-Leakage Epitaxial High-κ Gate Oxide for Germanium Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices., Hu, Chengqing, McDaniel Martin D., Jiang Aiting, Posadas Agham, Demkov Alexander A., Ekerdt John G., and Yu Edward T. , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Mar 2, Volume 8, Issue 8, p.5416-23, (2016)

Multidimensional Germanium-Based Materials as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries., Qin, Jinwen, and Cao Minhua , Chem Asian J, 2016 Mar 15, (2016)

An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash., Zhang, Lingen, and Xu Zhenming , J Hazard Mater, 2016 Mar 10, Volume 312, p.28-36, (2016)

Comparison of ultrasonic-assisted and regular leaching of germanium from by-product of zinc metallurgy., Zhang, Libo, Guo Wenqian, Peng Jinhui, Li Jing, Lin Guo, and Yu Xia , Ultrason Sonochem, 2016 Jul, Volume 31, p.143-9, (2016)

The Largest Metalloid Group 14 Cluster, Ge18 [Si(SiMe3 )3 ]6 : An Intermediate on the Way to Elemental Germanium., Kysliak, Oleksandr, Schrenk Claudio, and Schnepf Andreas , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2016 Jan 28, (2016)

Photodetection in Hybrid Single-Layer Graphene/Fully Coherent Germanium Island Nanostructures Selectively Grown on Silicon Nanotip Patterns., Niu, Gang, Capellini Giovanni, Lupina Grzegorz, Niermann Tore, Salvalaglio Marco, Marzegalli Anna, Schubert Markus Andreas, Zaumseil Peter, Krause Hans-Michael, Skibitzki Oliver, et al. , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Jan 27, Volume 8, Issue 3, p.2017-26, (2016)

Interface effects on acceptor qubits in silicon and germanium., Abadillo-Uriel, J C., and Calderón M J. , Nanotechnology, 2016 Jan 15, Volume 27, Issue 2, p.024003, (2016)