See more Lead products. Lead (atomic symbol: Pb, atomic number: 82) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 6 element with an atomic radius of 207.2. The number of electrons in each of Lead's shells is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4] and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The lead atom has a radius of 175 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 202 pm. In its elemental form, lead has a metallic gray appearance. Lead occurs naturally as a mixture of four stable isotopes: 204Pb (1.48%), 206Pb (23.6%), 207Pb (22.6%), and 208Pb (52.3%). Lead is obtained mainly from galena (PbS) by a roasting process. Anglesite, cerussite, and minim are other common lead containing minerals. Lead does occur as a free element in nature, but it is rare. It is a dense, soft metal that is very resistant to corrosion and poorly conductive compared to other metals. Its density and low melting point make it useful in applications such as electrolysis and industrial materials.
See more Tin products. Tin (atomic symbol: Sn, atomic number: 50) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 118.710. The number of electrons in each of tin's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The tin atom has a radius of 140.5 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 217 pm.In its elemental form, tin has a silvery-gray metallic appearance. It is malleable, ductile and highly crystalline. Tin has nine stable isotopes and 18 unstable isotopes. Under 3.72 degrees Kelvin, Tin becomes a superconductor. Applications for tin include soldering, plating, and such alloys as pewter. The first uses of tin can be dated to the Bronze Age around 3000 BC in which tin and copper were combined to make the alloy bronze. The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. For more information on tin, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of tin products, visit the Tin element page.
See more Silver products. Silver (atomic symbol: Ag, atomic number: 47) is a Block D, Group 11, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 107.8682. The number of electrons in each of Silver's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Kr]4d10 5s1. The silver atom has a radius of 144 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 203 pm. Silver was first discovered by Early Man prior to 5000 BC. In its elemental form, silver has a brilliant white metallic luster. It is a little harder than gold and is very ductile and malleable, being exceeded only by gold and perhaps palladium. Pure silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and possesses the lowest contact resistance. It is stable in pure air and water, but tarnishes when exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide, or air containing sulfur. It is found in copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc ores, among others. Silver was named after the Anglo-Saxon word "seolfor" or "siolfur," meaning 'silver'.
See more Antimony products. Antimony (atomic symbol: Sb, atomic number: 51) is a Block P, Group 15, Period 5 element with an atomic radius of 121.760. The number of electrons in each of antimony's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 5 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3. The antimony atom has a radius of 140 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 206 pm. Antimony was discovered around 3000 BC and first isolated by Vannoccio Biringuccio in 1540 AD. In its elemental form, antimony has a silvery lustrous gray appearance. The most common source of antimony is the sulfide mineral known as stibnite (Sb2S3), although it sometimes occurs natively as well. Antimony has numerous applications, most commonly in flame-retardant materials it also increases the hardness and strength of lead when combined in an alloy and is frequently employed as a dopant in semiconductor materials. Its name is derived from the Greek words anti and monos, meaning a metal not found by itself.