Mechanistic Insights into Alkane Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydrides: A DFT Study.

Title Mechanistic Insights into Alkane Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydrides: A DFT Study.
Authors F. Núñez-Zarur; X. Solans-Monfort; A. Restrepo
Journal Inorg Chem
DOI 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b01464

Alkane metathesis transforms small alkanes into their higher and lower homologues. The reaction is catalyzed by either supported d(0) metal hydrides (M = Ta, W) or d(0) alkyl alkylidene complexes (M = Ta, Mo, W, Re). For the silica-supported tantalum hydrides, several reaction mechanisms have been proposed. We performed DFT-D3 calculations to analyze the viability of the proposed pathways and compare them with alkane hydrogenolysis, which is a competitive process observed at the early stages of the reaction. The results show that the reaction mechanisms for alkane metathesis and for alkane hydrogenolysis present similar energetics, and this is consistent with the fact that the process taking place depends on the concentrations of the initial reactants. Overall, a modified version of the so-called one-site mechanism that involves alkyl alkylidene intermediates appears to be more likely and consistent with experiments. According to this proposal, tantalum hydrides are precursors of the alkyl alkylidene active species. During precursor activation, H2 is released and this allows alkane hydrogenolysis to occur. In contrast, the catalytic cycle implies only the reaction with alkane molecules in excess and does not form H2. Thus, the activity for alkane hydrogenolysis decreases. The catalytic cycle proposed here implies three stages: (i) ?-H elimination from the alkyl ligand, liberating ethene, (ii) alkene cross-metathesis, allowing olefin substituent exchange, and (iii) formation of the final products and alkyl alkylidene regeneration by olefin insertion and three successive 1,2-CH insertions to the alkylidene followed by ? abstraction. These results relate the reactivity of silica-supported hydrides with that of the alkyl alkylidene complexes, the other common catalyst for alkane metathesis.

Citation F. Núñez-Zarur; X. Solans-Monfort; A. Restrepo.Mechanistic Insights into Alkane Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydrides: A DFT Study.. Inorg Chem. 2017;56(17):1045810473. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b01464

Related Elements


See more Tantalum products. Tantalum (atomic symbol: Ta, atomic number: 73) is a Block D, Group 5, Period 6 element with an atomic weight of 180.94788. Tantalum Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of tantalum's shells is [2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2] and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2. The tantalum atom has a radius of 146 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 217 pm. High Purity (99.999%) Tantalum (Ta) MetalTantalum was first discovered by Anders G. Ekeberg in 1802 in Uppsala, Sweden however, it was not until 1844 when Heinrich Rose first recognized it as a distinct element. In its elemental form, tantalum has a grayish blue appearance. Tantalum is found in the minerals tantalite, microlite, wodginite, euxenite, and polycrase. Due to the close relation of tantalum to niobium in the periodic table, Tantalum's name originates from the Greek word Tantalos meaning Father of Niobe in Greek mythology.


See more Silicon products. Silicon (atomic symbol: Si, atomic number: 14) is a Block P, Group 14, Period 3 element with an atomic weight of 28.085. Silicon Bohr MoleculeThe number of electrons in each of Silicon's shells is 2, 8, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The silicon atom has a radius of 111 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 210 pm. Silicon was discovered and first isolated by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1823. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust, by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. The metalloid is rarely found in pure crystal form and is usually produced from the iron-silicon alloy ferrosilicon. Elemental SiliconSilica (or silicon dioxide), as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, one of the most inexpensive of materials with excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties. Ultra high purity silicon can be doped with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic to produce silicon for use in transistors, solar cells, rectifiers, and other solid-state devices which are used extensively in the electronics industry.The name Silicon originates from the Latin word silex which means flint or hard stone.

Related Forms & Applications