Organofunctional silane modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide surfaces as a route to stabilization.

Title Organofunctional silane modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide surfaces as a route to stabilization.
Authors R. Matthews; E. Glasser; S. Sprawls; R.H. French; T. Peshek; E. Pentzer; I. Martin
Journal ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
DOI 10.1021/acsami.7b02638

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a low-temperature processed transparent conductive oxide (TCO) made of earth abundant elements; its applications are currently limited by instability to heat, moisture, and acidic conditions. We demonstrate that the application of an organofunctional silane modifier mitigates AZO degradation, and explore the interplay between performance and material composition and morphology. Specifically, we evaluate degradation of bare AZO and APTES (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane)-modified AZO in response to damp heat (DH, 85 °C, 85 % relative humidity) exposure over 1000 h, then demonstrate how surface modification impacts changes in electrical and optical properties, and chemical composition in one of the most thorough studies to date. Hall measurements show that the resistivity of AZO increases due to a decrease in electron mobility, with no commensurate change in carrier concentration. APTES decelerates this electrical degradation, without affecting AZO optical properties. Percent transmission and yellowness index of an ensemble of bare and modified AZO are stable upon DH exposure, but haze increases slightly for a discrete sample of modified AZO. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometer (OP) measurements do not show evidence of pitting or delamination after 1000 h DH exposure, but indicate a slight increase in surface roughness on both the nanometer and micron length scales. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data (XPS) reveal that the surface composition of bare and silanized AZO is stable over this time frame; oxygen vacancies, as measured by XPS, are also stable with DH exposure, which, together with transmission and Hall measurements, indicate stable carrier concentrations. However, after 1500 h of DH exposure, only bare AZO shows signs of catastrophic destruction. Comparison of the data presented herein to previous reports indicates that the initial AZO composition and microstructure dictate the degradation profile. This work demonstrates that surface modification slows the bulk degradation of AZO, and provides insight into how the material can be more widely used as a transparent electrode in the next generation of optoelectronic devices.

Citation R. Matthews; E. Glasser; S. Sprawls; R.H. French; T. Peshek; E. Pentzer; I. Martin.Organofunctional silane modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide surfaces as a route to stabilization.. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b02638

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See more Aluminum products. Aluminum (or Aluminium) (atomic symbol: Al, atomic number: 13) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 3 element with an atomic weight of 26.9815386. It is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and the most abundant metallic element. Aluminum Bohr Model Aluminum's name is derived from alumina, the mineral from which Sir Humphrey Davy attempted to refine it from in 1812. Aluminum was first predicted by Antoine Lavoisier 1787 and first isolated by Hans Christian Øersted in 1825. Aluminum is a silvery gray metal that possesses many desirable characteristics. It is light, nonmagnetic and non-sparking. It stands second among metals in the scale of malleability, and sixth in ductility. It is extensively used in many industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed. Elemental AluminumAlthough it has only 60% of the electrical conductivity of copper, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its light weight. Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but alloyed with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, or other elements, it imparts a variety of useful properties.


See more Zinc products. Zinc (atomic symbol: Zn, atomic number: 30) is a Block D, Group 12, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 65.38. The number of electrons in each of zinc's shells is 2, 8, 18, 2, and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2. Zinc Bohr ModelThe zinc atom has a radius of 134 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 210 pm. Zinc was discovered by Indian metallurgists prior to 1000 BC and first recognized as a unique element by Rasaratna Samuccaya in 800. Zinc was first isolated by Andreas Marggraf in 1746. In its elemental form, zinc has a silver-gray appearance. It is brittle at ordinary temperatures but malleable at 100 °C to 150 °C.Elemental Zinc It is a fair conductor of electricity, and burns in air at high red producing white clouds of the oxide. Zinc is mined from sulfidic ore deposits. It is the 24th most abundant element in the earth's crust and the fourth most common metal in use (after iron, aluminum, and copper). The name zinc originates from the German word "zin," meaning tin.

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