Adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide adjuvant protects antigens from degradation.

Author(s) Colaprico, A.; Senesi, S.; Ferlicca, F.; Brunelli, B.; Ugozzoli, M.; Pallaoro, M.; O'Hagan, D.T.
Journal Vaccine
Date Published 2020 Apr 23

Aluminum based adjuvants are widely used in commercial vaccines, since they are known to be safe and effective with a variety of antigens. The effect of antigen adsorption onto Aluminum Hydroxide is a complex area, since several mechanisms are involved simultaneously, whose impact is both antigen and formulation conditions dependent. Moreover, the mode of action of Aluminum Hydroxide is itself complex, with many mechanisms operating simultaneously. Within the literature there are contrasting theories regarding the effect of adsorption on antigen integrity and stability, with reports of antigen being stabilized by adsorption onto Aluminum Hydroxide, but also with contrary reports of antigen being destabilized. With the aim to understand the impact of adsorption on three recombinant proteins which, following in vivo immunization, are able to induce functional bactericidal antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis type B, we used a range of physico-chemical tools, such as DSC and UPLC, along with in vitro binding of antibodies that recognize structural elements of the proteins, and supported the in vitro data with in vivo evaluation in mice studies. We showed that, following exposure to accelerated degradation conditions involving heat, the recombinant proteins, although robust, were stabilized by adsorption onto Aluminum Hydroxide and retain their structural integrity unlike the not adsorbed proteins. The measure of the Melting Temperature was a useful tool to compare the behavior of proteins adsorbed and not adsorbed on Aluminum Hydroxide and to predict protein stability.

DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.001
ISSN 1873-2518
Citation Vaccine. 2020;38(19):36003609.

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