Enhanced activity of highly conformal and layered tin sulfide (SnS) prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on 3D metal scaffold towards high performance supercapacitor electrode.

Author(s) Ansari, M.Zahid; Parveen, N.; Nandi, D.K.; Ramesh, R.; Ansari, S.Ali; Cheon, T.; Kim, S.H.
Journal Sci Rep
Date Published 2019 Jul 15
Abstract

Layered Sn-based chalcogenides and heterostructures are widely used in batteries and photocatalysis, but its utilizations in a supercapacitor is limited by its structural instability and low conductivity. Here, SnS thin films are directly and conformally deposited on a three-dimensional (3D) Ni-foam (NF) substrate by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin [TDMASn, ((CH)N)Sn] and HS that serves as an electrode for supercapacitor without any additional treatment. Two kinds of ALD-SnS films grown at 160 °C and 180 °C are investigated systematically by X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All of the characterization results indicate that the films deposited at 160 °C and 180 °C predominantly consist of hexagonal structured-SnS and orthorhombic-SnS phases, respectively. Moreover, the high-resolution TEM analyses (HRTEM) reveals the (001) oriented polycrystalline hexagonal-SnS layered structure for the films grown at 160 °C. The double layer capacitance with the composite electrode of SnS@NF grown at 160 °C is higher than that of SnS@NF at 180 °C, while pseudocapacitive Faradaic reactions are evident for both SnS@NF electrodes. The superior performance as an electrode is directly linked to the layered structure of SnS. Further, the optimal thickness of ALD-SnS thin film is found to be 60 nm for the composite electrode of SnS@NF grown at 160 °C by controlling the number of ALD cycles. The optimized SnS@NF electrode delivers an areal capacitance of 805.5 mF/cm at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm and excellent cyclic stability over 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

DOI 10.1038/s41598-019-46679-7
ISSN 2045-2322
Citation Ansari MZ, Parveen N, Nandi DK, Ramesh R, Ansari SA, Cheon T, et al. Enhanced activity of highly conformal and layered tin sulfide (SnS) prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on 3D metal scaffold towards high performance supercapacitor electrode. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):10225.

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