Experimental modeling of the acute toxicity and cytogenotoxic fate of composite mixtures of chromate, copper and arsenate oxides associated with CCA preservative using Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

Author(s) Fagbenro, O.S.; Alimba, C.G.; Bakare, A.A.
Journal Environ Anal Health Toxicol
Date Published 2019 Sep

Concurrent occurrence of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in aquatic ecosystems demands that their joint-actions in eliciting toxic effects be assessed for adequate understanding of the health risk they may pose to biota. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to As2O3 , CrO3 and CuO and their composite mixtures (1:1 and 1:1:1) at various concentrations (0 - 600 mg/L) for 96-h to determine the acute toxicity using OECD (1992) protocol. C. gariepinus was then exposed to sub-lethal concentrations corresponding to 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100% of the 96-h LC50 for 7 days to assess the cytogenotoxic effects using piscine micronucleus (MN) test. The 96-h LC50 showed that the metals/metalloid demonstrated differential interactions in a concentration dependent pattern. The 96-h LC50 showed that Cr was the most toxic while Cu and As:Cu were indeterminate (Cr > Cr:Cu > As:Cr > As > As:Cr:Cu > Cu = As:Cu indeterminate). Isobologram and synergistic ratio (SR) models predicted antagonistic interaction between Cu:Cr and As:Cr and synergism between As:Cu in the causation of morbidity and mortality of C. gariepinus. Interaction factor model predicted antagonism as common interactive mechanism among the metal/metalloid mixtures in the induction of MN and abnormal nuclear erythrocytes in C. gariepinus. Predicted interactions among the three metals/ metalloid were largely antagonism and synergism towards the induction of acute toxicity and cytogenotoxicity. The models employed herein may be useful in establishing environmental safe limits for mixtures of metals/metalloids against the induction of acute toxicity and DNA damage in lower aquatic vertebrates.

DOI 10.5620/eaht.e2019010
ISSN 2671-9525
Citation Environ Anal Health Toxicol. 2019;34(3):e2019010.

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