Genotoxic effects of 4-nonylphenol and Cyproterone Acetate on Rana catesbeiana (anura) tadpoles and juveniles.

Author(s) Gregorio, L.S.; Franco-Belussi, L.; De Oliveira, C.
Journal Environ Pollut
Date Published 2019 Aug
Abstract

Genotoxic analyses are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies as early biomarkers to investigate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on biological models. Several pollutants can induce DNA damage and, therefore, counting micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities are efficient tools to evaluate genotoxicity. Some pollutants such as 4-nonylphenol (NP), a detergent used mainly in industries, and Cyproterone Acetate (CPA), an antiandrogenic medicine, have already shown genotoxic effects on some vertebrates. However, although amphibians are considered bioindicators of environmental quality and their populations are declining worldwide, the effects of these compounds on anurans are not yet known and, therefore, we believe that it is important to investigate such effects on anurans. Since water contamination is one of the ultimate causes of amphibian decline, ecotoxicological studies are important to discuss the appropriate solutions to avoid species extinction. Thus, this study investigates the genotoxic effects on Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and juveniles after being exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L NP and 0.025, 0.25 and 2.5 ng/L CPA, by counting the nuclear abnormalities after exposure. The laboratory experiments lasted 28 days. The experimental conditions were the same except for the water volume since tadpoles and juveniles exhibit different habits at different developmental stages. Compared to juveniles, tadpoles were more susceptible to both compounds as indicated by the increased nuclear abnormalities observed in the highest NP concentration and all tested CPA concentrations. The juveniles, on the other hand, responded only to the two highest CPA concentrations. We concluded that CPA, even at very low concentrations, is extremely harmful to both anuran developmental stages and, particularly, to tadpoles. The significant effects observed on tadpoles is an important outcome of this study since 100 μg/L or higher NP concentrations are frequently detected in the environment.

DOI 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.05.076
ISSN 1873-6424
Citation Gregorio LS, Franco-Belussi L, De Oliveira C. Genotoxic effects of 4-nonylphenol and Cyproterone Acetate on Rana catesbeiana (anura) tadpoles and juveniles. Environ Pollut. 2019;251:879-884.

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