Geochemical simulation of the stabilization process of vanadium-contaminated soil remediated with calcium oxide and ferrous sulfate.

Author(s) Zou, Q.; Li, D.'an; Jiang, J.; Aihemaiti, A.; Gao, Y.; Liu, N.; Liu, J.
Journal Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
Date Published 2019 Mar 08

Vanadium (V)-contaminated soil poses health risks to plants, animals, and humans via both direct exposure and through the food chain. Stabilization treatment of metal-contaminated soil can chemically convert metal contaminants into less soluble, mobile, and toxic forms. However, the stabilization mechanisms of V-contaminated soil have not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed geochemical modeling of V-contaminated soil stabilized with the common binders calcium oxide (CaO) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO), as well as their mixture, using Visual MINTEQ software. The results were validated and exhibited good agreement with experimental results. For CaO, the formation of CaVO(s) and Ca(VO)·4HO(s) under mild and strong alkaline conditions (pH = 8.0-11.5 and 11.5-12.5), respectively, were predicted as the main immobilization routes. For FeSO, there appeared to be three reaction routes, corresponding to approaches A, B, and C, during the stabilization process. In the simulation, approach C (adsorption of V(V) onto ferrihydrite) was undervalued, whereas approaches A (formation of Fe(VO)(s)) and B (reduction of V(V) into V(IV) to form VO(s) or adsorb onto soil organic matter) were overvalued. Among the three approaches, approach C had a dominant role and exhibited good agreement with the experimental results. Additionally, soil pH and the saturation index of precipitation had major roles in the stabilization process. The optimal pH ranges for the stabilization of V-contaminated soil using CaO and FeSO were pH = 9.5-12.5 and pH = 4.0-5.0, respectively.

DOI 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.02.082
ISSN 1090-2414
Citation Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;174:498505.

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