Geographical variation of cadmium in commercial rice brands in Bangladesh: Human health risk assessment.

Author(s) Shahriar, S.; Rahman, M.Mahmudur; Naidu, R.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Date Published 2020 May 10

Food, including rice, is the major source of toxic element cadmium (Cd) for human exposure. Globally, many populations rely on the consumption of significant amounts of rice as a staple food. Using dietary intake and concentration of Cd, this study determines the risk posed to both adults and children due to Cd exposure from consumption of rice sold in Bangladeshi markets. Polished rice samples (n = 144) were collected from the markets of 16 districts of Bangladesh to determine the distribution, regional variability and associated health risk from Cd. The mean and median concentrations of Cd in rice were 44 μg/kg and 34 μg/kg, respectively, ranging between 1 and 180 μg/kg, dry weight. The Cd concentrations of the rice samples did not exceed the safe limit of EU/CODEX but 9% exceeded the safe limit of FSANZ (Food standards Australia New Zealand) values. Results indicated that there were significant variations of Cd among (33%) and within (67%) the districts. Some rice brands such as Najirshail, Katarivogh and Chinigura had Cd levels of 81, 70 and 68 μg/kg, respectively. Cadmium ingested on a daily basis ranged between 0.09 and 0.58 μg/kg body weight (bw) with the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for individuals varying between 1.35 × 10 and 8.7 × 10 in different districts. The age groups (2-5 yrs) and (6-10 yrs) experienced higher risks than others and both males and females were found to be susceptible from Cd exposure of rice.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137049
ISSN 1879-1026
Citation Sci Total Environ. 2020;716:137049.