Identification of Resistance Genes and Response to Arsenic in BCP1.

Author(s) Firrincieli, A.; Presentato, A.; Favoino, G.; Marabottini, R.; Allevato, E.; Stazi, S.Rita; Mugnozza, G.Scarascia; Harfouche, A.; Petruccioli, M.; Turner, R.J.; Zannoni, D.; Cappelletti, M.
Journal Front Microbiol
Date Published 2019
Abstract

Arsenic (As) ranks among the priority metal(loid)s that are of public health concern. In the environment, arsenic is present in different forms, organic or inorganic, featured by various toxicity levels. Bacteria have developed different strategies to deal with this toxicity involving different resistance genetic determinants. Bacterial strains of genus, and more in general Actinobacteria phylum, have the ability to cope with high concentrations of toxic metalloids, although little is known on the molecular and genetic bases of these metabolic features. Here we show that BCP1, an extremophilic actinobacterial strain able to tolerate high concentrations of organic solvents and toxic metalloids, can grow in the presence of high concentrations of As(V) (up to 240 mM) under aerobic growth conditions using glucose as sole carbon and energy source. Notably, BCP1 cells improved their growth performance as well as their capacity of reducing As(V) into As(III) when the concentration of As(V) is within 30-100 mM As(V). Genomic analysis of BCP1 compared to other actinobacterial strains revealed the presence of three gene clusters responsible for organic and inorganic arsenic resistance. In particular, two adjacent and divergently oriented gene clusters include three arsenate reductase genes (1/2/3) involved in resistance mechanisms against As(V). A sequence similarity network (SSN) and phylogenetic analysis of these arsenate reductase genes indicated that two of them (ArsC2/3) are functionally related to thioredoxin (Trx)/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)-dependent class and one of them (ArsC1) to the mycothiol (MSH)/mycoredoxin (Mrx)-dependent class. A targeted transcriptomic analysis performed by RT-qPCR indicated that the arsenate reductase genes as well as other genes included in the gene cluster (possible regulator gene, , and arsenite extrusion genes, , and ) are transcriptionally induced when BCP1 cells were exposed to As(V) supplied at two different sub-lethal concentrations. This work provides for the first time insights into the arsenic resistance mechanisms of a strain, revealing some of the unique metabolic requirements for the environmental persistence of this bacterial genus and its possible use in bioremediation procedures of toxic metal contaminated sites.

DOI 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00888
ISSN 1664-302X
Citation Firrincieli A, Presentato A, Favoino G, Marabottini R, Allevato E, Stazi SR, et al. Identification of Resistance Genes and Response to Arsenic in BCP1. Front Microbiol. 2019;10:888.