Implanting Germanium into Graphene.

Author(s) Tripathi, M.; Markevich, A.; Böttger, R.; Facsko, S.; Besley, E.; Kotakoski, J.; Susi, T.
Journal ACS Nano
Date Published 2018 May 22

Incorporating heteroatoms into the graphene lattice may be used to tailor its electronic, mechanical and chemical properties, although directly observed substitutions have thus far been limited to incidental Si impurities and P, N and B dopants introduced using low-energy ion implantation. We present here the heaviest impurity to date, namely Ge ions implanted into monolayer graphene. Although sample contamination remains an issue, atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and quantitative image simulations show that Ge can either directly substitute single atoms, bonding to three carbon neighbors in a buckled out-of-plane configuration, or occupy an in-plane position in a divacancy. First-principles molecular dynamics provides further atomistic insight into the implantation process, revealing a strong chemical effect that enables implantation below the graphene displacement threshold energy. Our results demonstrate that heavy atoms can be implanted into the graphene lattice, pointing a way toward advanced applications such as single-atom catalysis with graphene as the template.

DOI 10.1021/acsnano.8b01191
ISSN 1936-086X
Citation Tripathi M, Markevich A, Böttger R, Facsko S, Besley E, Kotakoski J, et al. Implanting Germanium into Graphene. ACS Nano. 2018;12(5):4641-4647.

Related Applications, Forms & Industries