Integrated methodological approach reveals microbial diversity and functions in aerobic groundwater microcosms adapted to vinyl chloride.

Author(s) Liu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, F.P.; Yu, K.; Lintner, C.; Cupples, A.M.; Mattes, T.E.
Journal FEMS Microbiol Ecol
Date Published 2018 Sep 01
Abstract

Vinyl chloride (VC), a known human carcinogen, is often formed in groundwater (GW) by incomplete reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. An integrated microbial ecology approach involving bacterial enrichments and isolations, carbon stable-isotope probing (SIP) and metagenome and genome sequencing was applied to ethene-fed GW microcosms that rapidly transitioned to aerobic growth on VC. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the microbial communities in ethene- and VC-grown cultures. SIP with 13C2-VC demonstrated that Nocardioides spp. significantly participated in carbon uptake from VC (52.1%-75.7% enriched in heavy fractions). Sediminibacterium, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas spp. also incorporated 13C from VC into genomic DNA. Ethene- and VC-assimilating Nocardioides sp. strain XL1 was isolated. Sequencing revealed a large (∼300 kbp) plasmid harboring genes encoding alkene monooxygenase and epoxyalkane: coenzyme M transferase, enzymes known to participate in aerobic VC and ethene biodegradation. The plasmid was 100% identical to pNOCA01 found in VC-assimilating Nocardioides sp. strain JS614. Metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures indicated other bacteria implicated in carbon uptake from VC possessed the genetic potential to detoxify epoxides via epoxide hydrolase or glutathione S-transferase (Pseudomonas) and/or metabolize VC epoxide breakdown products and downstream VC metabolites. This study provides new functional insights into aerobic VC metabolism within a GW microbial community.

DOI 10.1093/femsec/fiy124
ISSN 1574-6941
Citation Liu X, Wu Y, Wilson FP, Yu K, Lintner C, Cupples AM, et al. Integrated methodological approach reveals microbial diversity and functions in aerobic groundwater microcosms adapted to vinyl chloride. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018;94(9).

Related Applications, Forms & Industries