Iron-dependent nitrate reduction by anammox consortia in continuous-flow reactors: A novel prospective scheme for autotrophic nitrogen removal.

Author(s) Bi, Z.; Zhang, W.; Song, G.; Huang, Y.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Date Published 2019 Nov 20

Anammox bacteria are chemolithotrophic organisms growing on the conversion of ammonium and nitrite with bicarbonate as the sole carbon source. Meanwhile, anammox bacteria display a metabolic versatility to sustain their metabolism. However, there is less attention on the Fe/Fe-dependent autotrophic denitrification by anammox consortia. In this study, the autotrophic nitrate reduction using different valence of iron (Fe, Fe and Fe+ Fe, respectively) as electron donors by anammox consortia were firstly explored in continuous feeding mode. Results revealed anammox consortia showed high adaptability to the niche wherein containing nitrate and iron. They could generate nitrite and ammonium from iron-dependent nitrate reduction, and hence support their central metabolism. During 60-days operation, the maximum nitrate and total nitrogen removal efficiency reached 88.43% and 80.77%, respectively, with coexistence of Fe and Fe. The expression of key functional genes involved in nitrate reduction (including narG, napA and nrfA) in 16S rRNA level revealed the coupling of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrite, dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonia (DNRA), and anammox processes possibly play pivotal role in nitrogen loss under Fe/Fe condition. Meanwhile, abiotic reduction by Fe/Fe also contributed nitrate reduction to provide nitrite and ammonium for anammox consortia. Activities of two vital enzymes hydrazine dehydrogenase (HDH) and nitrate oxidoreduetase (NAR) also inferred higher microbial activities with co-existence of Fe and Fe. The present study confirms and further extends the versatile metabolisms of Anammox consortia, also it can help to circumvent the accumulation of nitrate produced by anammox process itself and increase the quality of discharge.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.078
ISSN 1879-1026
Citation Sci Total Environ. 2019;692:582588.

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