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Ligand-mediated contaminant degradation by bare and carboxymethyl cellulose-coated bimetallic palladium-zero valent iron nanoparticles in high salinity environments.

Author(s) Ma, X.; He, D.; Jones, A.M.; Waite, D.; An, T.
Journal J Environ Sci (China)
Date Published 2019 Mar
Abstract

The application of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for the degradation of contaminants has been extensively investigated, however, few studies have focused on degradation in high salinity environments. In this study, the ability of bare and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-coated bimetallic Pd-nZVI particles to degrade 33'44'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in high saline water (SW) is examined with particular attention given to the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the rate of degradation. EDTA enhances the reactivity of Pd-nZVI in SW, with evidence provided to link this to the removal of the passivating layer. Additionally, a conceptual model is proposed which provides a quantitative description of the removal of these iron oxide layers in the presence of EDTA. An optimum EDTA to bare Pd-nZVI molar ratio of 0.1 exists, with insufficient EDTA unable to remove the passivating layer whilst excess EDTA results in Fe loss and enhanced agglomeration due to magnetic attraction of the bare Fe(0) particles. In contrast, CMC-coating of Pd-nZVI assemblages actually impedes degradation, despite the coated particles displaying a smaller average size compared to uncoated particles, with even the presence of EDTA in this case not significantly improving degradation. The reduced reactivity in the presence of CMC is primarily attributed to the effect of CMC on the association of Pd with nZVI particles. In particular, the presence of CMC reduced the total amount of Pd incorporated with the stabilized particles compared to the non-stabilized particles. Additionally, the presence of CMC results in less Pd present in its reactive zero-valent oxidation state.

DOI 10.1016/j.jes.2018.09.002
ISSN 1001-0742
Citation Ma X, He D, Jones AM, T Waite D, An T. Ligand-mediated contaminant degradation by bare and carboxymethyl cellulose-coated bimetallic palladium-zero valent iron nanoparticles in high salinity environments. J Environ Sci (China). 2019;77:303-311.

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