Author(s) Levi, M.; Gratton, E.; Forster, I.C.; Hernando, N.; Wagner, C.A.; Biber, J.; Sorribas, V.; Murer, H.
Journal Nat Rev Nephrol
Date Published 2019 08

Over the past 25 years, successive cloning of SLC34A1, SLC34A2 and SLC34A3, which encode the sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (P) cotransport proteins 2a-2c, has facilitated the identification of molecular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of renal and intestinal P transport. P and various hormones, including parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins, such as fibroblast growth factor 23, regulate the activity of these P transporters through transcriptional, translational and post-translational mechanisms involving interactions with PDZ domain-containing proteins, lipid microdomains and acute trafficking of the transporters via endocytosis and exocytosis. In humans and rodents, mutations in any of the three transporters lead to dysregulation of epithelial P transport with effects on serum P levels and can cause cardiovascular and musculoskeletal damage, illustrating the importance of these transporters in the maintenance of local and systemic P homeostasis. Functional and structural studies have provided insights into the mechanism by which these proteins transport P, whereas in vivo and ex vivo cell culture studies have identified several small molecules that can modify their transport function. These small molecules represent potential new drugs to help maintain P homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease - a condition that is associated with hyperphosphataemia and severe cardiovascular and skeletal consequences.

DOI 10.1038/s41581-019-0159-y
Keywords Animals; Humans; Kidney; Kidney Diseases; Phosphate Transport Proteins; Phosphates
ISSN 1759-507X
Citation Levi M, Gratton E, Forster IC, Hernando N, Wagner CA, Biber J, et al. Mechanisms of phosphate transport. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2019;15(8):482-500.

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