Membrane-based technologies for zero liquid discharge and fluoride removal from industrial wastewater.

Author(s) Damtie, M.Mezemir; Hailemariam, R.Habte; Woo, Y.Chul; Park, K.D.; Choi, J.S.
Journal Chemosphere
Date Published 2019 Dec
Abstract

Several defluoridation techniques for reducing high initial fluoride concentration (IFC) in wastewater have been tested, but only a few of them have achieved the permissible standards. This study examined the hybrid crystallization-reverse osmosis technique (HRO) in light of flux, fluoride removal efficiency, fouling tendency, mineral recovery, complying zero liquid discharge (ZLD), and effluent discharge standard (EDS). Simulated wastewater with an IFC of 6600 mg/L was utilized and the final HRO performance was compared with those of the low-pressure (30 bar) standalone reverse osmosis (SRO), nanofiltration (SNF), and membrane distillation (SMD) processes. Accordingly, the study on SRO and SNF revealed that pressure, feed pH, membrane type, and IFC were the major factors affecting performance, and SRO was unable to sufficiently defluoridate wastewater with IFC >614 mg/L, needing pretreatment. Subsequently, the HRO process was selected and it was seen that the optimum calcium dose and respective final effluent pH for attaining EDS and ZLD were 16.5 g/L & 7.1 and 19.8 g/L & 5.7 respectively. The best operating pH for all conditions in HRO was approximately 9. Additionally, HRO showed good mineral recovery tendency and less organic fouling. The overall comparisons of flux and residual fluoride for HRO, SRO, SNF, and SMD were 49.3 LMH & 1.21 mg/L; 34.9 LMH & 62 mg/L, 44.05 LMH & 301 mg/L, and 38 LMH & 0.9 mg/L respectively. Therefore, low-pressure HRO can be applied to treat wastewater with high IFC; good tendency of mineral recovery, as good as that of SMD.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.07.019
ISSN 1879-1298
Citation Damtie MM, Hailemariam RH, Woo YC, Park K-, Choi J-. Membrane-based technologies for zero liquid discharge and fluoride removal from industrial wastewater. Chemosphere. 2019;236:124288.

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