Nitric oxide and glutamate are contributors of anti-seizure activity of rubidium chloride: A comparison with lithium.

Author(s) Rahimi, N.; Hassanipour, M.; Yarmohammadi, F.; Faghir-Ghanesefat, H.; Pourshadi, N.; Bahramnejad, E.; Dehpour, A.Reza
Journal Neurosci Lett
Date Published 2019 Aug 24
Abstract

The neuro-protective effects of rubidium and lithium as alkali metals have been reported for different central nervous system dysfunctions including mania and depression. The aim of this study was evaluating as well as comparing the effects of rubidium chloride (RbCl) and lithium chloride (LiCl) on different seizures paradigms in mice and determining the involvement of NMDA receptors and nitrergic pathway. To assess the seizures threshold, animals received intravenous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 0.5%; 1 mL/min). Male NMRI mice (6-8 weeks) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of different doses of RbCl and LiCl. Doses greater than 10 mg/kg of RbCl showed a significant anticonvulsant activity 60 min after administration; the anticonvulsant effects of LiCl was observed at the doses more than 5 mg/kg and after 30 min in PTZ-induced seizure threshold. But, RbCl (10, 20 mg/kg, i.p) or LiCl (5, 10 mg/kg, i.p) injection did not induce protection against maximal electroshock (MES) or intraperitoneal injection of PTZ lethal dose (80 mg/kg)-induced seizure models. Pre-treatment with L-NAME (non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 10 mg/kg; i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, 30 mg/kg; i.p.) enhanced the anticonvulsive effects of both RbCl (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and LiCl (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in PTZ-induced seizure threshold model. Injection of MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist, 0.05 mg/kg; i.p.) before RbCl (5 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.001) and LiCl (1 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.001) administration increased the anti-seizure activity. But, treatment with L-arginine (precursor of nitric oxide, 100 mg/kg; i.p.) decreased the seizure threshold of both RbCl (20 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.001) and LiCl (10 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.001). Measurement of nitrite levels in hippocampus of animals revealed a remarkable reduction after treatment with RbCl (20 mg/kg, i.p; P < 0.05) and LiCl (10 mg/kg, i.p; P < 0.01). To conclude, rubidium may protect central nervous system against seizures in PTZ-induced seizures threshold model through NMDA/nitrergic pathways with a similarity to lithium effects in mice.

DOI 10.1016/j.neulet.2019.134349
ISSN 1872-7972
Citation Rahimi N, Hassanipour M, Yarmohammadi F, Faghir-Ghanesefat H, Pourshadi N, Bahramnejad E, et al. Nitric oxide and glutamate are contributors of anti-seizure activity of rubidium chloride: A comparison with lithium. Neurosci Lett. 2019;708:134349.

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