Prevention of Calcium Nephrolithiasis: The Influence of Diuresis on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization in Urine.

Author(s) Baumann, J.M.; Casella, R.
Journal Adv Prev Med
Date Published 2019
Abstract

A high fluid intake is still the most evidence-based measure for the prevention of idiopathic stone disease. The recommendation of current guidelines on urolithiasis to increase diuresis to 2-2.5 L/day is mainly based on a single clinical study. The present paper shows the influence of diuresis on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and especially aggregation (AGN) which can explain the initial development of Ca stones on papillary calcifications as well as stone growth in the renal pelvic system. Diuresis determines the urinary transit time (UT) through the kidney and together with the afflux of Ca and Ox the state of urinary saturation with respect to CaOx being the most frequent stone mineral. High supersaturation inducing crystallization during UT and a high urinary ion concentration interfering with the inhibition of crystal AGN by urinary macromolecules seem to be critical parameters for stone formation. Using data from the literature the influence of diuresis on these parameters is evaluated for short-term recurrent stone formers (RSF), idiopathic stone patients, and healthy controls, the latter two collectives with and without excessive oxalate ingestion. This investigation suggests that a diuresis of 2 L/day may protect from stone formation even after dietary Ox excesses and in RSF. However, in RSF with a continuously high Ca and Ox afflux into urine a permanent high diuresis is required which is difficult to sustain over 24 hours.

DOI 10.1155/2019/3234867
ISSN 2090-3480
Citation Baumann JM, Casella R. Prevention of Calcium Nephrolithiasis: The Influence of Diuresis on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization in Urine. Adv Prev Med. 2019;2019:3234867.

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