Response of the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha to sub-lethal concentrations of samarium and yttrium after chronic exposure.

Author(s) Hanana, H.; Turcotte, P.; Dubé, M.; Gagnon, C.; Gagné, F.
Journal Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
Date Published 2018 Dec 15

Samarium (Sm) and yttrium (Y) are commonly used rare earth elements (REEs) but there is a scarcity of information concerning their biological effects in non-target aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine the bioavailability of those REEs and their toxicity on Dreissena polymorpha after exposure to increasing concentration of Sm and Y for 28 days at 15 °C. At the end of the exposure period, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), metallothionein (MT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cyclin D (Cyc D) were analysed. In addition, we examined lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA strand breaks (DSB), GST and prostaglandin cyclooxygenase (COX) activities. Results showed a concentration dependent increase in the level of the REEs accumulated in the soft tissue of mussels. Both REEs decreased CAT but did not significantly modulated SOD and MT expressions. Furthermore, Sm up-regulated GST, CO1 and Cyc D, while Y increased and decreased GST and CO1 transcripts levels, respectively. Biomarker activities showed no oxidative damage as evidenced by LPO, while COX activity was decreased and DNA strand breaks levels were changed suggesting that Sm and Y exhibit anti-inflammatory and genotoxic effects. Factorial analysis revealed that the major impacted biomarkers by Sm were LPO, CAT, CO1 and COX, while GST gene expression, COX, Cyc D and CAT as the major biomarkers affected by Y. We conclude that these REEs display different mode of action but further investigations are required in order to define the exact mechanism involved in their toxicity.

DOI 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.047
Keywords Animals; Biomarkers; Catalase; DNA Damage; Dreissena; Fresh Water; Glutathione Transferase; Lipid Peroxidation; Metallothionein; Samarium; Superoxide Dismutase; Water Pollutants, Chemical; Yttrium
ISSN 1090-2414
Citation Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;165:662670.

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