Spirulina platensis ameliorates the sub chronic toxicities of lead in rabbits via anti-oxidative, anti- inflammatory, and immune stimulatory properties.

Author(s) Aladaileh, S.H.; Khafaga, A.F.; El-Hack, M.E.Abd; Al-Gabri, N.A.; Abukhalil, M.H.; Alfwuaires, M.A.; Bin-Jumah, M.; Alkahtani, S.; Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Aleya, L.; Abdelnour, S.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Date Published 2020 Jan 20
Abstract

Lead acetate (Pb) is an oldest and widespread environmental toxicant that led to cumulative injury in humans and all living organisms through induction of oxidative stress. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a cyanobacteria with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune stimulatory effects. In this study, the ameliorative effect of SP was evaluated against the dietary sub chronic lead toxicities in rabbits. A total number of 75 male New Zealand rabbits were allocated randomly into 5 groups; the first group feed on basal diet alone and served as control group, the second group feed on basal diet + 100 mg Pb /kg diet, the third, fourth, and the fifth groups feed on basal diet + 100 mg Pb /kg diet + SP (0.5, 1, or 1.5 g/kg diet; respectively), the experiment was extended for 8 weeks. Results revealed a significant improvement in some of growth parameters like final body weight and daily weight gain, blood parameters in rabbits treated with SP at level 1.5 g/kg diet followed by those receiving SP 1 g/kg diet. However, a significant decrease in blood parameters, liver function, renal parameters, lipid profiles, oxidative parameters (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl), heart indices (creatine phosphokinase, creatine kinase-muscle/brain, lactate dehydrogenase), total Pb residues in muscles, and area percent of nuclear factor kappa b immune expression were reported in groups supplemented with different levels of SP. Pathologic analysis of liver, kidneys, and heart revealed moderate to severe degenerative and necrotic changes in Pb- exposed rabbits, which is ameliorated with supplementation of SP in different levels. Conclusively, dietary supplementation of SP at different levels attenuated the cumulative effect of lead in rabbits in dose-dependent manner; this attenuation may be attributed to its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, as well as its immune stimulant effect.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134879
ISSN 1879-1026
Citation Aladaileh SH, Khafaga AF, El-Hack ME, Al-Gabri NA, Abukhalil MH, Alfwuaires MA, et al. Spirulina platensis ameliorates the sub chronic toxicities of lead in rabbits via anti-oxidative, anti- inflammatory, and immune stimulatory properties. Sci Total Environ. 2020;701:134879.