Synthesis, characterization, and environmental behaviors of monodispersed platinum nanoparticles.

Author(s) Sikder, M.; Wang, J.; Chandler, T.; Berti, D.; Baalousha, M.
Journal J Colloid Interface Sci
Date Published 2019 Mar 22

The release of platinum group elements, including platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs), has been increasing over recent decades. However, few studies have investigated the fate, behavior and effects of PtNPs in environmental media. Here, we report a protocol for the synthesis of five different sizes (8.5 ± 1.2, 10.3 ± 1.3, 20.0 ± 4.8, 40.5 ± 4.1, and 70.8 ± 4.2 nm) of monodispersed citrate- and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated PtNPs, together with a characterization of their behaviors using a multi method approach in relevant biological and toxicological media. In general, PtNPs sizes measured using dynamic light scattering, field flow fractionation, single-particle inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, were all in good agreement when PtNP sizes were larger than the size detection limits of each analytical technique. Slight differences in sizes measured were attributable to differences in analytical techniques, measuring principles, NP shape and NP permeability. The thickness of the PVP layer increased (from 4.4 to 11.35 nm) with increases in NP size. The critical coagulation concentration of cit-PtNPs was independent of NP size, possibly due to differences in PtNPs surface charges as a function of NP size. PtNPs did not undergo significant dissolution in any media tested. PtNPs did not aggregate significantly in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; but they formed aggregates in moderately hard water and in 30 ppt synthetic seawater, and aggregate size increased with increases in PtNPs concentration. Overall, this study describes a general model NP system (i.e., PtNPs) of different controlled NP sizes and coatings that is predictable, stable and useful to investigate the fate, behavior, uptake, and eco-toxicity of NPs in the environment.

DOI 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.01.036
ISSN 1095-7103
Citation Sikder M, Wang J, G Chandler T, Berti D, Baalousha M. Synthesis, characterization, and environmental behaviors of monodispersed platinum nanoparticles. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2019;540:330-341.