Synthesis of super hydrophilic cellulose-alpha zirconium phosphate ion exchange membrane via surface coating for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

Author(s) Ibrahim, Y.; Abdulkarem, E.; Naddeo, V.; Banat, F.; Hasan, S.W.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Date Published 2019 Jul 03
Abstract

In this study, commercial cellulose membranes were surface coated with alpha‑zirconium phosphate nanoparticles (α-ZrP-n) to study their impact on the overall removal efficiency of heavy metals from synthetic metal mixture wastewater solution. A total of four homogeneous solutions (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 wt%) of α-ZrP-n were prepared by sonicating the nanoparticles in deionized water. These solutions were used to surface coat the commercial cellulose membranes. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) along with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to confirm the attachment of α-ZrP-n on the cellulose membrane surface. Furthermore, the structural characteristics of the α-ZrP-n modified cellulose membranes were also studied. The water contact angle results showed that all coated membranes remained super-hydrophilic. The porosity of the membranes decreased to 48% with the addition of 1.00 wt% α-ZrP-n compared to 65% for the pristine membrane. The mechanical strength has improved from 3.4 MPa for the pristine membrane to about 4 MPa for the 1.00 wt% α-ZrP-n membrane. Similarly, the thermal stability was found to be slightly enhanced as evidenced by the increase in decomposition temperature to 280 and 285 °C in the 0.75 and 1.00 wt% α-ZrP-n membranes, respectively. Furthermore, a removal efficiency of 97.0 ± 0.6, 98.0 ± 0.5, 99.5 ± 0.2, and 91.5 ± 2.0% for Cu (II), Zn (II), Ni (II), and Pb (II), respectively, was observed with the 0.50 wt% α-ZrP-n membrane. This removal was achieved at a flux of 41.85 ± 0.87 × 10 LMH. Increasing the α-ZrP-n concentration further did not show any improvement in the overall removal efficiency. However, it led to 46% flux reduction in the 1.00 wt% α-ZrP-n membrane. The mechanism of removal of the heavy metal ions was postulated to be a combination of ion exchange and electrostatic attraction of the strong negatively charged α-ZrP-n membranes and the free metal ions in the wastewater solution.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.009
ISSN 1879-1026
Citation Ibrahim Y, Abdulkarem E, Naddeo V, Banat F, Hasan SW. Synthesis of super hydrophilic cellulose-alpha zirconium phosphate ion exchange membrane via surface coating for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Sci Total Environ. 2019;690:167-180.

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